LADY JANE GREY
 AMONG Elizabeth's companions and playmates in her early years was a young lady, her cousin, as she was often
called, though she was really the daughter of her cousin, named Jane Grey, commonly called in history Lady Jane
Grey. Her mother was the Marchioness of Dorset, and was the daughter of one of King Henry the Eighth's sisters.
King Henry had named her as the next in the order of succession after his own children, that is, after Edward
his son, and Mary and Elizabeth his two daughters; and, consequently, though she was very young, yet, as she
might one day be Queen of England, she was a personage of considerable importance. She was, accordingly, kept
near the court, and shared, in some respects, the education and the studies of the two princesses.
Lady Jane was about four years younger than the Princess Elizabeth, and the sweetness of her disposition,
united with an extraordinary intellectual superiority, which showed itself at
 a very early period, made her a universal favorite. Her father and mother, the Marquis an Marchioness of
Dorset, lived at an estate they possessed, called Broadgate, in Leicestershire which is in the central part of
England, although they took their title from the county of Dorset which is on the southwestern coast. They we
very proud of their daughter, and attached infinite importance to her descent from Henry VII., and to the
possibility that she might one day succeed to the English throne. They were very strict and severe in their
manners, an paid great attention to etiquette and punctilio as persons who are ambitious of rising in the world
are very apt to do. In all ages of the world, and among all nations, those who have long been accustomed to a
high position are easy and unconstrained in their manners and demeanor, while those who have been newly
advanced from a lower station, or who are anticipating or aspiring to such an advance, make themselves slaves
to the rules of etiquette and ceremony. It was thus that the father and mother of Lady Jane, anticipating that
she might one day become a queen, watched and guarded her incessantly, subjected her to thousand unwelcome
restraints, and repressed
 all the spontaneous and natural gayety and sprightliness which belongs properly to such a child.
She became, however, a very excellent scholar in consequence of this state of things. She had a private
teacher, a man of great eminence for his learning and abilities, and yet of a very kind and gentle spirit,
which enabled him to gain a strong hold on his pupil's affection and regard. His name was John Aylmer. The
Marquis of Dorset, Lady Jane's father, became acquainted with Mr. Aylmer when he was quite young, and appointed
him, when he had finished his education, to come and reside in his family as chaplain and tutor to his
children. Aylmer afterward became a distinguished man, was made Bishop of London, and held many high offices
of state under Queen Elizabeth, when she came to reign. He became very much attached to Queen Elizabeth in the
middle and latter part of his life, as he had been to Lady Jane in the early part of it. A curious incident
occurred during the time that he was in the service of Elizabeth, which illustrates the character of the man.
The queen was suffering from the toothache, and it was necessary that the tooth should be extracted. The
 was ready with his instruments, and several ladies and gentlemen of the royal household were in the queen's
room commiserating her sufferings; but the queen dreaded the operation; so excessively that she could not
summon fortitude enough to submit to it. Aylmer, after trying some time in vain to encourage her, took his seat
in the chair instead of her, and said to the surgeon, "I am an old man, and have but few teeth to lose; but
come, draw this one, and let her majesty see how light a matter it is." One would not have supposed that
Elizabeth would have allowed this to be done; but she did, and, finding that Aylmer made so light of the
operation, she submitted to have it performed upon herself.
But to return to Lady Jane. She was very strongly attached to her teacher, and made great; progress in the
studies which he arranged for her. Ladies of high rank, in those days, were accustomed to devote great
attention to the ancient and modern languages. There was, in fact, a great necessity then, as indeed there now,
for a European princess to be acquainted with the principal languages of Europe; for the, various royal
families were continually inter-marrying with each other, which led to a great
 many visits, and other intercourse between the different courts. There was also a great deal of intercourse
with the pope, in which the Latin language was the medium of communication. Lady Jane devoted a
great deal of time to all these studies, and made rapid proficiency in them all.
The Princess Elizabeth was also an excellent scholar. Her teacher was a very learned and celebrated man, named
Roger Ascham. She spoke French and Italian as fluently as she did English. She also wrote and spoke Latin with
correctness and readiness. She made considerable progress in Greek too. She could write the Greek character
very beautifully, and could express herself tolerably well in conversation in that language. One of her
companions, a young lady of the name of Cecil, is said to have spoken Greek as well as English. Roger Ascham
took great interest in advancing the princess in these studies, and in the course of these his instructions he
became acquainted with Lady Jane, and he praises very highly, in his letters, the industry and assiduity of
Lady Jane in similar pursuits.
One day Roger Ascham, being on a journey from the north of England to London, stopped
 to make a call at the mansion of the Marquis of Dorset. He found that the family were away; they had gone off
upon a hunting excursion in the park. Lady Jane, however, had been left at home, and Ascham went in to see her.
He found her in the library reading Greek. Ascham examined her a little, and was very much surprised to find
how well acquainted with the language she had become, although she was then only about fifteen years old. He
told her that he should like very much to have her write him a letter in Greek, and this she readily promised
to do. He asked her, also, how it happened that, at her age, she had made such advances in learning. "I will
tell you," said she, "how it has happened. One of the greatest benefits that God ever conferred upon me was in
giving me so sharp and severe parents and so gentle a teacher; for, when I was in the presence of either my
father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, sit, stand, or go eat, drink, be merry or sad; be sewing,
playing, dancing, or doing any thing else, I must do it, as it were, in just such weight, measure, and number,
as perfectly as possible, or else I am so sharply taunted, so cruelly threatened, presently, sometimes with
pinches, nips, and
 bobs, and other ways, which I will not name for the honor I bear my parents, that I am continually teased and
tormented. And then, when the time comes for me to go to Mr. Elsmer, he teaches me so gently, so pleasantly,
and with such fair allurements to learning, that I think all the time nothing while I am with him; and I am
always sorry to go away from him, because whatsoever else I do but learning is full of grief, trouble, fear,
LADY JANE GREY AT STUDY.
Lady Jane Grey was an intimate friend and companion of the young King Edward as long as he lived. Edward died
when he was sixteen years of age, so that he did not reach the period which his father had assigned for his
reigning in his own name. One of King Edward's most prominent and powerful ministers during the latter part of
his life was the Earl of Northumberland. The original name of the Earl of Northumberland was John Dudley. He
was one of the train who came in the procession at the close of the baptism of Elizabeth, carrying the
presents. He was a Protestant, and was very friendly to Edward and to Lady Jane Grey, for they were Protestants
too. But his feelings and policy were hostile to Mary, for she was a Catholic. Mary was sometimes treated
 very harshly by him, and she was subjected many privations and hardships on account her religious faith. The
government of Edward justified these measures, on account of the necessity of promoting the Reformation, and
discouraging popery by every means in their power. Northumberland supposed, too, that it was safe to do this,
for Edward being very young, it was probable that he would live and reign a long time. It is true that Mary was
named, in her father's will, as his successor, if she outlived him, but then it was highly probable that she
would not outlive him, for she was several years older than he.
All these calculations, however, were spoiled by the sudden failure of Edward's health when he was sixteen
years old. Northumberland was much alarmed at this. He knew at once that if Edward should die, and Mary succeed
him, all his power would be gone, and he determined to make desperate efforts to prevent such a result.
It must not be understood, however, that in coming to this resolution, Northumberland considered himself as
intending and planning a deliberate usurpation of power. There was a real uncertainty in respect to the
question who was the true and rightful heir to the crown.
 Northumberland was, undoubtedly, strongly biased by his interest, but he may have been unconscious of the bias,
and in advocating the mode of succession on which the continuance of his own power depended, he may have really
believed that he was only maintaining what was in itself rightful and just.
In fact, there is no mode which human ingenuity has ever yet devised for determining the hands in which the
supreme executive of a nation shall be lodged, which will always avoid doubt and contention. If this power
devolves by hereditary descent, no rules can be made so minute and full as that cases will not sometimes occur
that will transcend them. If, on the other hand, the plan of election be adopted, there will often be technical
doubts about a portion of the votes, and cases will sometimes occur where the result will depend upon this
doubtful portion. Thus there will be disputes under any system, and ambitious men will seize such occasions to
struggle for power.
In order that our readers may clearly understand the nature of the plan which Northumberland adopted, we
present, on the following page, a sort of genealogical table of the royal family of England in the days of
TABLE OF THE ROYAL FAMILY OF ENGLAND IN THE TIME OF ELIZABETH.
 By examination of this table; it will be seen that King Henry VII. left a son and two daughters. The son was
King Henry VIII., and he had three children. His third child was King Edward VI., who was now
about to die. The other two were the Princesses Mary and Elizabeth, who would naturally be considered the next
heirs after Edward; and besides, King Henry had left a will, as has been already explained, confirming their
rights to the succession. This will he had made near the time of his death; but it will be recollected that,
during his life-time, both the marriages from which these princesses had sprung had been formally annulled. His
marriage with Catharine of Aragon had been annulled on one plea, and that of Anne Boleyn on another. Both these
decrees of annulment had afterward been revoked, and the right of the princesses to succeed had been restored,
or attempted to be restored, by the will. Still, it admitted of a question, after all, whether Mary and
Elizabeth were to be considered as the children of true and lawful wives or not.
If they were not, then Lady Jane Grey was the next heir, for she was placed next to the princesses by King
Henry the Eighth's will. This will, for some reason or other, set aside
 the descendants of Margaret, who went to Scotland as the wife of James IV. of that country. What right the king
had thus to disinherit children of his sister Margaret was a great question. Among her descendants was Mary
Queen of Scots, as will be seen by the table, and she was, at this time, the representative of that branch of
the family. The friends of Mary Queen of Scots claimed that she was the lawful heir to the English throne after
Edward. They maintained that the marriage of Catherine, the Princess Mary's mother, and also that of Anne
Boleyn, Elizabeth's mother, had both been annulled, and that the will could not restore them. They maintained,
also, that the will was equally powerless in setting aside the claims of Margaret, her grandmother. Mary Queen
of Scots, though silent now, advanced her claim subsequently, and made Elizabeth a great deal of trouble.
Then there was, besides these, a third party, who maintained that King Henry the Eighth's will was not
effectual in legalizing again the annulled marriages, but that it was sufficient to set aside the claims of
Margaret. Of course, with them, Lady Jane Grey, who, as will be seen by the table, was the representative of
 second sister of Henry VIII., was the only heir. The Earl of Northumberland embraced this view.
His motive was to raise Lady Jane Grey to the throne, in order to exclude the Princess Mary, whose accession he
knew very well would bring all his greatness to a very sudden end.
The Earl of Northumberland was at this time the principal minister of the young king. The protector Somerset
had fallen long ago. Northumberland, whose name was then John Dudley, had supplanted him, and had acquired so
great influence and power at court that almost every thing seemed to be at his disposal. He was, however,
generally hated by the other courtiers and by the nation. Men who gain the confidence of a young or
feeble-minded prince, so as to wield a great power not properly their own, are almost always odious. It was
expected, however, that his career would be soon brought to an end, as all knew that King Edward must die, and
it was generally understood that Mary was to succeed him.
Northumberland, however, was very anxious to devise some scheme to continue his power, and in revolving the
subject in his mind, he conceived of plans which seemed to promise not only to continue, but also greatly to
 His scheme was to have the princesses' claims set aside, and Lady Jane Grey raised to the throne. He had
several sons. One of them was young, handsome, and accomplished. He thought of proposing him to Lady Jane's
father as the husband of Lady Jane, and, to induce the marquis to consent to this plan, he promised to obtain a
dukedom for him by means of his influence with the king. The marquis agreed to the proposal. Lady Jane did not
object to the husband they offered her. The dukedom was obtained, and the marriage, together with two others
which Northumberland had arranged to strengthen his influence, were celebrated, all on the same day, with great
festivities and rejoicings. The people looked on moodily, jealous and displeased, though they had no open
ground of displeasure, except that it was unsuitable to have such scenes of gayety and rejoicing among the high
officers of the court while the young monarch himself was lying upon his dying bed. They did not yet know that
it was Northumberland's plan to raise his new daughter-in-law to the throne.
Northumberland thought it would greatly increase his prospect of success if he could obtain some act of
acknowledgment of Lady Jane's
 claims to the crown before Edward died. An opportunity soon occurred for effecting this par pose. One day, as
he was sitting by young Edward's bedside, he turned the conversation to the subject of the Reformation, which
had made great progress during Edward's reign, and he led Edward on in the conversation, until he remarked that
it was a great pity to have the work all undone by Mary's accession, for she was a Catholic, and would, of
course, endeavor to bring the country back again under the spiritual dominion of Rome. Northumberland then told
him that there was one way, and one way only, to avert such a calamity, and that was to make Lady Jane his heir
instead of Mary.
King Edward was a very thoughtful, considerate, and conscientious boy, and was very desirous of doing what he
considered his duty. He thought it was his duty to do all in his power to sustain the Reformation, and to
prevent the Catholic power from gaining ascendency in England again. He was, therefore, easily persuaded to
accede to Northumberland's plan, especially as he was himself strongly attached to Lady Jane, who had often
been his playmate and companion.
The king accordingly sent for three judges
 of the realm, and directed them to draw up a deed of assignment, by which the crown was to be conveyed to Lady
Jane on the young king's death, Mary and Elizabeth being alike excluded. The judges were afraid to do this;
for, by King Henry the Eighth's settlement of the crown, all those persons who should do any thing to disturb
the succession as he arranged it were declared to be guilty of high treason. The judges knew very well,
therefore, that if they should do what the king required of them, and then, if the friends of Lady Jane should
fail of establishing her upon the throne, the end of the affair would be the cutting off of their own heads in
the Tower. They represented this to the king, and begged to be excused from the duty that he required of them.
Northumberland was in a great rage at this, and seemed almost ready to break out against the judges in open
violence. They, however, persisted in their refusal to do what they well knew would subject them to the pains
and penalties of treason.
Northumberland, finding that threats and violence would not succeed, contrived another mode of obviating the
difficulty. He proposed to protect the judges from any possible evil consequences of their act by a formal
pardon for it
 signed by the king, and sealed with the great seal, so that, in case they were ever charged with treason, the
pardon would save them from punishment. This plan succeeded. The pardon was made out, being written with great
formality upon a parchment roll, and sealed with the great seal. The judges then prepared and signed the deed
of settlement by which the crown was given to Lady Jane, though, after all, they did it with much reluctance
and many forebodings.
Northumberland next wanted to contrive some plan for getting the princesses into his power, in order to prevent
their heading any movement in behalf of their own claims at the death of the king. He was also desirous of
making such arrangements as to conceal the death of the king for a few days after it should take place, in
order that he might get Lady Jane and her officers in complete possession of the kingdom before the demise of
the crown should be generally known. For this purpose he dismissed the regular physicians who had attended upon
the king, and put him under the charge of a woman, who pretended that she had a medicine that would certainly
cure him. He sent, also, messengers to the princesses, who
 were then in the country north of London, requesting that they would come to Greenwich to be near the sick
chamber where their brother was lying, that they might cheer and comfort him in his sickness and pain.
The princesses obeyed the summons. They each set out immediately on the journey, and moved toward London on
their way to Greenwich. In the mean time, Edward was rapidly declining. The change in the treatment which took
place when his physicians left him, made him worse instead of better. His cough increased, his breathing became
more labored and difficult; in a word, his case presented all the symptoms of approaching dissolution. At
length he died. Northumberland attempted to keep the fact concealed until after the princesses should arrive,
that he might get them into his power. Some faithful friend, however, made all haste to meet them, in order to
inform them what was going on. In this way Mary received intelligence of her brother's death when she had
almost reached London, and was informed, also of the plans of Northumberland for raising Lady Jane to the
throne. The two princesses were extremely alarmed, and both turned back at once toward the northward again.
 to write a letter to the council, remonstrating against their delay in proclaiming her queen, and then
proceeded rapidly to a strong castle at a plane called Farmingham, in the county of Suffolk, on the eastern
coast of England. She made this her head-quarters, because she supposed that the people of that county were
particularly friendly to her; and then, besides, it was near the sea, and, in case the course of events should
turn against her, she could make her escape to foreign lands. It is true that the prospect of being fugitive
and an exile was very dark and gloomy, but it was not so terrible as the idea of being shut up a prisoner in
the Tower, or being beheaded on a block for treason.
In the mean time, Northumberland went, at the head of a troop of his adherents, to the residence of Lady Jane
Grey, informed her of the death of Edward, and announced to her their determination to proclaim her queen. Lady
Jane was very much astonished at this news. At first she absolutely refused the offered honor; but the
solicitations and urgency of Northumberland, and of her father and her young husband, at length prevailed. She
was conducted to London, and instated in at leant the semblance of power.
 As the news of these transactions spread throughout the land, a universal and strong excitement was produced,
every body at once taking sides either for Mary or Lady Jane. Bands of armed men began to assemble. It soon be.
came apparent, however, that, beyond the immediate precincts of London, the country was almost unanimous for
Mary. They dreaded, it is true, the danger which they anticipated from her Catholic faith, but still they had
all considered it a settled point, since the death of Henry the Eighth, that Mary was to reign whenever Edward
should die; and this general expectation that she would be queen had passed insensibly into an opinion that she
ought to be. Considered strictly as a legal question, it was certainly doubtful which of the four claimants to
the throne had the strongest title; but the public were not disposed so to regard it. The chose, on the whole,
that Mary should reign. Large military masses consequently flocked her standard. Elizabeth took sides with her,
and, as it was important to give as much public effect to her adhesion as possible, they furnished Elizabeth
with a troop of a thousand horsemen, at the head of which she rode to meet Mary and tender her aid.
 Northumberland went forth at the head of such forces as he could collect, but he soon found that the attempt
was vain. His troops forsook him. The castles which had at first been under his command surrendered themselves
to Mary. The Tower of London went over to her side. Finally, all being lost, Northumberland himself was taken
prisoner, and all his influential friends with him, and were committed to the Tower. Lady Jane herself too,
together with her husband and father, were seized and sent to prison.
Northumberland was immediately put upon his trial for treason. He was condemned, and brought at once to the
block. In fact, the whole affair moved very promptly and rapidly on, from its commencement to its consummation.
Edward the Sixth died on the 5th of July, and it was only the 22d of August when Northumberland was beheaded.
The period for which the unhappy Lady Jane enjoyed the honor of being called a queen was nine days.
It was about a month after this that Mary passed from the Tower through the city of London in a grand triumphal
procession to be crowned. The royal chariot, covered with cloth of golden tissue, was drawn by six horses most
splendidly caparisoned. Elizabeth, who had aided
 her sister, so far as she could, in the struggle, was admitted to share the triumph. She had a carriage drawn
by six horses too, with cloth and decorations of silver. They proceeded in this manner, attended and followed
by a great cavalcade of nobles and soldiery, to Westminster Abbey, where Mary took her seat with great
formality upon her father's throne.