HE country over which Vang Khan ruled was called Karakatay. It bordered upon the country of Katay, which has
already been mentioned as forming the northern part of what is now China. Indeed, as its name imports, it was
considered in some sense as a portion of the same general district of country. It was that part of Katay which
was inhabited by Tartars.
Vang Khan's name at first was Togrul. The name Vang Khan, which was, in fact, a title rather than a name, was
given him long afterward, when he had attained to the height of his power. To avoid confusion, however, we
shall drop the name Togrul, and call him Vang Khan from the beginning.
Vang Khan was descended from a powerful line of khans who had reigned over Karakatay for many generations.
These khans were a wild and lawless race of men, continually fighting with each other, both for mastery, and
 for the plunder of each other's flocks and herds. In this way most furious and cruel wars were often fought
between near relatives. Vang Khan's grandfather, whose name was Mergus, was taken prisoner in one of these
quarrels by another khan, who, though he was a relative, was so much exasperated by something that Mergus had
done that he sent him away to a great distance to the king of a certain country which is called Kurga, to be
disposed of there. The King of Kurga put him into a sack, sewed up the mouth of it, and then laid him across
the wooden image of an ass, and left him there to die of hunger and suffocation.
The wife of Mergus was greatly enraged when she heard of the cruel fate of her husband. She determined to be
revenged. It seems that the relative of her husband who had taken him prisoner, and had sent him to the King of
Kurga, had been her lover in former times before her marriage; so she sent him a message, in which she
dissembled her grief for the loss of her husband, and only blamed the King of Kurga for his cruel death, and
then said that she had long felt an affection for him, and that, if he continued of the same mind as when he
had formally addressed her, she was now willing to become his wife, and offered, if
 he would come to a certain place, which she specified, to meet her, she would join him there.
Nawr, for that was the chieftain's name, fell at once into the snare which the beautiful widow thus laid for
him. He immediately accepted her proposals, and proceeded to the place of rendezvous. He went, of course,
attended by a suitable guard, though his guard was small, and consisted chiefly of friends and personal
attendants. The princess was attended also by a guard, not large enough, however, to excite any suspicion. She
also took with her in her train a large number of carts, which were to be drawn by bullocks, and which were
laden with stores of provisions, clothing, and other such valuables, intended as a present for her new husband.
Among these, however, there were a large number of great barrels, or rounded receptacles of some sort, in which
she had concealed a considerable force of armed men. These receptacles were so arranged that the men concealed
in them could open them from within in an instant, at a given signal, and issue forth suddenly all armed and
ready for action.
Among the other stores which the princess had provided, there was a large supply of a certain intoxicating
drink which the Monguls and Tartars were accustomed to make in those
 days. As soon as the two parties met at the place of rendezvous the princess gave Nawr a very cordial greeting,
and invited him and all his party to a feast, to be partaken on the spot. The invitation was accepted, the
stores of provisions were opened, and many of the presents were unpacked and displayed. At the feast Nawr and
his party were all supplied abundantly with the intoxicating liquor, which, as is usual in such cases, they
were easily led to drink to excess; while, on the other hand, the princess's party, who knew what was coming,
took good care to keep themselves sober. At length, when the proper moment arrived, the princess made the
signal. In an instant the men who had been placed in ambuscade in the barrels burst forth from their
concealment and rushed upon the guests at the feast. The princess herself, who was all ready for action, drew a
dagger from her girdle and stabbed Nawr to the heart. Her guards, assisted by the re-enforcement which had so
suddenly appeared, slew or secured all his attendants, who were so totally incapacitated, partly by the drink
which they had taken, and partly by their astonishment at the sudden appearance of so overwhelming a force,
that they were incapable of making any resistance.
 The princess, having thus accomplished her revenge, marshaled her men, packed up her pretended presents, and
returned in triumph home.
Such stories as these, related by the Asiatic writers, though they were probably often much embellished in the
narration, had doubtless all some foundation in fact, and they give us some faint idea of the modes of life and
action which prevailed among these half-savage chieftains in those times. Vang Khan himself was the grandson of
Mergus, who was sewed up in the sack. His father was the oldest son of the princess who contrived the
above-narrated stratagem to revenge her husband's death. It is said that he used to accompany his father to the
wars when he was only ten years old. The way in which he formed his friendship for Yezonkai, and the alliance
with him which led him to call Temujin his son and to refuse to take his wife away from him, as already
related, was this: When his father died he succeeded to the command, being the oldest son; but the others were
jealous of him, and after many and long quarrels with them and with other relatives, especially with his uncle,
who seemed to take the lead against him, he was at last over-powered or outmanúuvred, and was obliged to
 fly. He took refuge, in his distress, in the country of Yezonkai. Yezonkai received him in a very friendly
manner, and gave him effectual protection. After a time he furnished him with troops, and helped him to recover
his kingdom, and to drive his uncle away into banishment in his turn. It was while he was thus in Yezonkai's
dominions that he became acquainted with Temujin, who was then very small, and it was there that he learned to
call him his son. Of course, now that Temujin was obliged to fly himself from his native country and abandon
his hereditary dominions, as he had done before, he was glad of the opportunity of requiting to the son the
favor which he had received, in precisely similar circumstances, from the father, and so he gave Temujin a very
There is another circumstance which is somewhat curious in respect to Vang Khan, and that is, that he is
generally supposed to be the prince whose fame was about this period spread all over Europe, under the name of
Prester John, by the Christian missionaries in Asia. These missionaries sent to the Pope, and to various
Christian kings in Europe, very exaggerated accounts of the success of their missions among the Persians,
Turks, and Tartars; and at last
 they wrote word that the great Khan of the Tartars had become a convert, and had even become a preacher of the
Gospel, and had taken the name of Prester John. The word prester was understood to be a corruption of
presbyter. A great deal was accordingly written and said all through Christendom about the great Tartar
convert, Prester John. There were several letters forwarded by the missionaries, professedly from him, and
addressed to the Pope and to the different kings of Europe. Some of these letters, it is said, are still in
existence. One of them was to the King of France. In this letter the writer tells the King of France of his
great wealth and of the vastness of his dominions. He says he has seventy kings to serve and wait upon him. He
invites the King of France to come and see him, promising to bestow a great kingdom upon him if he will, and
also to make him his heir and leave all his dominions to him when he dies; with a great deal more of the same
The other letters were much the same, and the interest which they naturally excited was increased by the
accounts which the missionaries gave of the greatness and renown of this more than royal convert, and of the
progress which Christianity had made and was still
mak-  ing in his dominions through their instrumentality.
It is supposed, in modern times, that these stories were pretty much all inventions on the part of the
missionaries, or, at least, that the accounts which they sent were greatly exaggerated and embellished; and
there is but little doubt that they had much more to do with the authorship of the letters than any khan.
Still, however, it is supposed that there was a great prince who at least encouraged the missionaries in their
work, and allowed them to preach Christianity in his dominions, and, if so, there is little doubt that Vang
Khan was the man.
At all events, he was a very great and powerful prince, and he reigned over a wide extent of country. The name
of his capital was Karakorom. The distance which Temujin had to travel to reach this city was about ten days'
He was received by Vang Khan with great marks of kindness and consideration. Vang Khan promised to protect him,
and, in due time, to assist him in recovering his kingdom. In the mean while Temujin promised to enter at once
into Vang Khan's service, and to devote himself faithfully to promoting the interests of his kind protector by
every means in his power.