THE CHILDHOOD OF RICHARD III.
OUNG Richard, as was said at the close of the last chapter, was of a very tender age when his father and his brother
Edmund were killed at the battle of Wakefield. He was at that time only about eight years old. It is very
evident too, from what has been already related of the history of his father and mother, that during the whole
period of his childhood and youth he must have passed through very stormy times. It is only a small portion of
the life of excitement, conflict, and alarm which was led by his father that there is space to describe in this
volume. So unsettled and wandering a life did his father and mother lead, that it is not quite certain in which
of the various towns and castles that from time to time they made their residence, he was born. It is supposed,
however, that he was born in the Castle of Fotheringay, in the year 1452. His father was killed in 1461, which
would make Richard, as has already been said, about eight or nine years old at that time.
 There were a great many strange tales related in subsequent years in respect to Richard's' birth. He became
such a monster, morally, when he grew to be a man, that the people believed that he was born a monster in
person. The story was that he came into the world very ugly in face and distorted in form, and that his hair
and his teeth were already grown. These were considered as portents of the ferociousness of temper and
character which he was subsequently to manifest, and of the unnatural and cruel crimes which he would live to
commit. It is very doubtful, however, whether any of these stories are true. It is most probable that at his
birth he looked like any other child.
There were a great many periods of intense excitement and terror in the family history before the great final
calamity at Wakefield when Richard's father and his brother Edmund were killed. At these times the sole
reliance of the prince in respect to the care of the younger children was upon Lady Cecily, their mother. The
older sons went with their father on the various martial expeditions in which he was engaged. They shared with
him the hardships and dangers of his conflicts, and the triumph and exultations of his victories. The younger
children, however, remained in seclusion with
 their mother, sometimes in one place and sometimes in another, wherever there was, for the time being, the
greatest promise of security.
Indeed, during the early childhood of Richard, the changes and vicissitudes through which the family passed
were so sudden and violent in their character as sometimes to surpass the most romantic tales of fiction. At
one time, while Lady Cecily was residing at the Castle of Ludlow with Richard and some of the younger children,
a party of her husband's enemies, the Lancastrians, appeared suddenly at the gates of the town, and, before
Prince Richard's party had time to take any efficient measures for defense, the town and the castle were both
taken. The Lancastrians had expected to find Prince Richard himself in the castle, but he was not there. They
were exasperated by their disappointment, and in their fury they proceeded to ransack all the rooms, and to
destroy every thing that came into their hands. In some of the inner and more private apartments they found
Lady Cecily and her children. They immediately seized them all, made them prisoners, and carried them away. By
King Henry's orders, they were placed in close custody in another castle in the southern part of England, and
all the property, both of the prince
 and of Lady Cecily, was confiscated. While the mother and the younger children were thus closely shut up and
reduced to helpless destitution, the father and the older sons were obliged to fly from the country to save
their lives. In less than three months after this time these same exiled and apparently ruined fugitives were
marching triumphantly through the country, at the head of victorious troops, carrying all before them. Lady
Cecily and her children were set at liberty, and restored to their property and their rights, while King Henry
himself, whose captives they had been, was himself made captive, and brought in durance to London, and Queen
Margaret and her son were in their turn compelled to fly from the realm to save their lives.
This last change in the condition of public affairs took place only a short time before the great final contest
between Prince Richard of York, King Richard's father, and the family of Henry, when the prince lost his life
at Wakefield, as described in the last chapter.
PALACE AND GARDEN BELONGING TO THE HOUSE OF YORK.
Of course, young Richard, being brought up amid these scenes of wild commotion, and accustomed from childhood
to witness the most cruel and remorseless conflicts between branches of the same family, was trained by them to
 be ambitious, daring, and unscrupulous in respect to the means to be used in circumventing or destroying an
enemy. The seed thus sown produced in subsequent years most dreadful fruit, as will be seen more fully in the
sequel of his history.
There were a great many hereditary castles belonging to the family of York, many of which had descended from
father to son for many generations. Some of these castles were strong fortresses, built in wild and
inaccessible retreats, and intended to be used as places of temporary refuge, or as the rallying-points and
rendezvous of bodies of armed men. Others were better adapted for the purposes of a private residence, being
built with some degree of reference to the comfort of the inmates, and surrounded with gardens and grounds,
where the ladies and the children who were left in them could find recreation and amusement adapted to their
age and sex.
It was in such a castle as this, near London, that Lady Cecily and her younger children were residing when her
husband went to the northward to meet the forces of the queen, as related in the last chapter. Here Lady Cecily
lived in great state, for she thought the time was drawing nigh when her husband would be raised to
 the throne. Indeed, she considered him as already the true and rightful sovereign of the realm, and she
believed that the hour would very soon come when his claims would be universally acknowledged, and when she
herself would be Queen of England, and her boys royal princes, and, as such, the objects of universal attention
and regard. She instilled these ideas continually into the minds of the children, and she exacted the utmost
degree of subserviency and submission toward herself and toward them on the part of all around her.
While she was thus situated in her palace near London, awaiting every day the arrival of a messenger from the
north announcing the final victory of her husband over all his foes, she was one day thunderstruck, and
overwhelmed with grief and despair, by the tidings that her husband had been defeated, and that he himself, and
the dear son who had accompanied him, and was just arriving at maturity, had been ignominiously slain. The
queen, too, her most bitter foe, now exultant and victorious, was advancing triumphantly toward London.
Not a moment was to be lost. Lady Cecily had with her, at this time, her two youngest sons, George and Richard.
immedi-  ate arrangements for her flight. It happened that the Earl of Warwick, who was at this time the Lord High Admiral,
and who, of course, had command of the seas between England and the Continent, was a relative and friend of
Lady Cecily's. He was at this time in London. Lady Cecily applied to him to assist her in making her escape. He
consented, and, with his aid, she herself, with her two children and a small number of attendants, escaped
secretly from London, and made their way to the southern coast. There Lady Cecily put the children and the
attendants on board a vessel, by which they were conveyed to the coast of Holland. On landing there, they were
received by the prince of the country, who was a friend of Lady Cecily, and to whose care she commended them.
The prince received them with great kindness, and sent them to the city of Utrecht, where he established them
safely in one of his palaces, and appointed suitable tutors and governors to superintend their education. Here
it was expected that they would remain for several years.
Their mother did not go with them to Holland. Her fears in respect to remaining in England were not for
herself, but only for her helpless children. For herself, her only
im-  pulse was to face and brave the dangers which threatened her, and triumph over them. So she went boldly back
to London, to await there whatever might occur.
Besides, her oldest son was still in England, and she could not forsake him. You will recollect that, when his
father went north to meet the forces of Queen Margaret, he sent his oldest son, Edward, Earl of Marche, to the
western part of England, to obtain re-enforcements. Edward was at Gloucester when the tidings came to him of
his father's death. Gloucester is on the western confines of England, near the southeastern borders of Wales.
Now, of course, since her husband was dead, all Lady Cecily's ambition, and all her hopes of revenge were
concentrated in him. She wished to be at hand to counsel him, and to co-operate with him by all the means in
her power. How she succeeded in these plans, and how, by means of them, he soon became King of England, will
appear in the next chapter.