CHIEF GALL was one of the most aggressive leaders of the Sioux nation in their last stand for
The westward pressure of civilization during the past three centuries has been tremendous. When our
hemisphere was "discovered", it had been inhabited by the natives for untold ages, but it was held
undiscovered because the original owners did not chart or advertise it. Yet some of them at least
had developed ideals of life which included real liberty and equality to all men, and they did not
recognize individual ownership in land or other property beyond actual necessity. It was a soul
development leading to essential manhood. Under this system they brought forth some striking
Gall was considered by both Indians and
 whites to be a most impressive type of physical manhood. From his picture you can judge of this
Let us follow his trail. He was no tenderfoot. He never asked a soft place for himself. He always
played the game according to the rules and to a finish. To be sure, like every other man, he made
some mistakes, but he was an Indian and never acted the coward.
The earliest stories told of his life and doings indicate the spirit of the man in that of the boy.
When he was only about three years old, the Blackfoot band of Sioux were on their usual roving hunt,
following the buffalo while living their natural happy life upon the wonderful wide prairies of the
It was the way of every Sioux mother to adjust her household effects on such dogs and pack ponies as
she could muster from day to day, often lending one or two to accommodate some other woman whose
horse or dog had died, or perhaps had been
 among those stampeded and carried away by a raiding band of Crow warriors. On this particular
occasion, the mother of our young Sioux brave, Matohinshda, or Bear-Shedding-His-Hair (Gall's
childhood name), intrusted her boy to an old Eskimo pack dog, experienced and reliable, except
perhaps when unduly excited or very thirsty.
On the day of removing camp the caravan made its morning march up the Powder River. Upon the wide
table-land the women were busily digging teepsinna (an edible sweetish root, much used by them) as
the moving village slowly progressed. As usual at such times, the trail was wide. An old jack rabbit
had waited too long in hiding. Now, finding himself almost surrounded by the mighty plains people,
he sprang up suddenly, his feathery ears conspicuously erect, a dangerous challenge to the dogs and
A whoop went up. Every dog accepted the challenge. Forgotten were the bundles, the kits, even the
babies they were drawing
 or carrying. The chase was on, and the screams of the women reechoed from the opposite cliffs of the
Powder, mingled with the yelps of dogs and the neighing of horses. The hand of every man was against
the daring warrior, the lone Jack, and the confusion was great.
When the fleeing one cleared the mass of his enemies, he emerged with a swiftness that commanded
respect and gave promise of a determined chase. Behind him, his pursuers stretched out in a thin
line, first the speedy, unburdened dogs and then the travois dogs headed by the old Eskimo with his
precious freight. The youthful Gall was in a travois, a basket mounted on trailing poles and
harnessed to the sides of the animal.
"Hey! hey! they are gaining on him!" a warrior shouted. At this juncture two of the canines had
almost nabbed their furry prey by the back. But he was too cunning for them. He dropped instantly
and sent both dogs over his head, rolling
 and spinning, then made another flight at right angles to the first. This gave the Eskimo a chance
to cut the triangle. He gained fifty yards, but being heavily handicapped, two unladen dogs passed
him. The same trick was repeated by the Jack, and this time he saved himself from instant death by a
double loop and was now running directly toward the crowd, followed by a dozen or more dogs. He was
losing speed, but likewise his pursuers were dropping off steadily. Only the sturdy Eskimo dog held
to his even gait, and behind him in the frail travois leaned forward the little Matohinshda, nude
save a breech clout, his left hand holding fast the convenient tail of his dog, the right grasping
firmly one of the poles of the travois. His black eyes were bulging almost out of their sockets; his
long hair flowed out behind like a stream of dark water.
The Jack now ran directly toward the howling spectators, but his marvelous speed and alertness were
on the wane; while on
 the other hand his foremost pursuer, who had taken part in hundreds of similar events, had every
confidence in his own endurance. Each leap brought him nearer, fiercer and more determined. The last
effort of the Jack was to lose himself in the crowd, like a fish in muddy water; but the big dog
made the one needed leap with unerring aim and his teeth flashed as he caught the rabbit in viselike
jaws and held him limp in air, a victor!
The people rushed up to him as he laid the victim down, and foremost among them was the frantic
mother of Matohinshda, or Gall. "Michinkshe! michinkshe!" (My son! my son!) she screamed as she drew
near. The boy seemed to be none the worse for his experience. "Mother!" he cried, "my dog is brave:
he got the rabbit!" She snatched him off the travois, but he struggled out of her arms to look upon
his dog lovingly and admiringly. Old men and boys crowded about the hero of the day, the dog, and
the thoughtful grandmother
 of Matohinshda unharnessed him and poured some water from a parfleche water bag into a basin. "Here,
my grandson, give your friend something to drink."
"How, hechetu," pronounced an old warrior no longer in active service. "This may be only an
accident, an ordinary affair; but such things sometimes indicate a career. The boy has had a
wonderful ride. I prophesy that he will one day hold the attention of all the people with his
This is the first remembered story of the famous chief, but other boyish exploits foretold the man
he was destined to be. He fought many sham battles, some successful and others not; but he was
always a fierce fighter and a good loser.
Once he was engaged in a battle with snowballs. There were probably nearly a hundred boys on each
side, and the rule was that every fair hit made the receiver officially dead. He must not
participate further, but must remain just where he was struck.
 Gall's side was fast losing, and the battle was growing hotter every minute when the youthful
warrior worked toward an old water hole and took up his position there. His side was soon
annihilated and there were eleven men left to fight him. He was pressed close in the wash-out, and
as he dodged under cover before a volley of snowballs, there suddenly emerged in his stead a huge
gray wolf. His opponents fled in every direction in superstitious terror, for they thought he had
been transformed into the animal. To their astonishment he came out on the farther side and ran to
the line of safety, a winner!
It happened that the wolf's den had been partly covered with snow so that no one had noticed it
until the yells of the boys aroused the inmate, and he beat a hasty retreat. The boys always looked
upon this incident as an omen.
Gall had an amiable disposition but was quick to resent insult or injustice. This sometimes involved
him in difficulties, but
 he seldom fought without good cause and was popular with his associates. One of his characteristics
was his ability to organize, and this was a large factor in his leadership when he became a man. He
was tried in many ways, and never was known to hesitate when it was a question of physical courage
and endurance. He entered the public service early in life, but not until he had proved himself
competent and passed all tests.
When a mere boy, he was once scouting for game in midwinter, far from camp, and was overtaken by a
three days' blizzard. He was forced to abandon his horse and lie under the snow for that length of
time. He afterward said he was not particularly hungry; it was thirst and stiffness from which he
suffered most. One reason the Indian so loved his horse or dog was that at such times the animal
would stay by him like a brother. On this occasion Gall's pony was not more than a stone's throw
away when the storm subsided and the sun
 shone. There was a herd of buffalo in plain sight, and the young hunter was not long in procuring a
This chief's contemporaries still recall his wrestling match with the equally powerful Cheyenne boy,
Roman Nose, who afterward became a chief well known to American history. It was a custom of the
northwestern Indians, when two friendly tribes camped together, to establish the physical and
athletic supremacy of the youth of the respective camps.
The "Che-hoo-hoo" is a wrestling game in which there may be any number on a side, but the numbers
are equal. All the boys of each camp are called together by a leader chosen for the purpose and draw
themselves up in line of battle; then each at a given signal attacks his opponent.
In this memorable contest, Matohinshda, or Gall, was placed opposite Roman Nose. The whole people
turned out as spectators of the struggle, and the battlefield was a plateau between the two camps,
 midst of picturesque Bad Lands. There were many athletic youths present, but these two were really
the Apollos of the two tribes.
In this kind of sport it is not allowed to strike with the hand, nor catch around the neck, nor
kick, nor pull by the hair. One may break away and run a few yards to get a fresh start, or clinch,
or catch as catch can. When a boy is thrown and held to the ground, he is counted out. If a boy has
met his superior, he may drop to the ground to escape rough handling, but it is very seldom one
gives up without a full trial of strength.
It seemed almost like a real battle, so great was the enthusiasm, as the shouts of sympathizers on
both sides went up in a mighty chorus. At last all were either conquerors or subdued except Gall and
Roman Nose. The pair seemed equally matched. Both were stripped to the breech clout, now tugging
like two young buffalo or elk in mating time, again writhing and
 twisting like serpents. At times they fought like two wild stallions, straining every muscle of
arms, legs, and back in the struggle. Every now and then one was lifted off his feet for a moment,
but came down planted like a tree, and after swaying to and fro soon became rigid again.
All eyes were upon the champions. Finally, either by trick or main force, Gall laid the other
sprawling upon the ground and held him fast for a minute, then released him and stood erect,
panting, a master youth. Shout after shout went up on the Sioux side of the camp. The mother of
Roman Nose came forward and threw a superbly worked buffalo robe over Gall, whose mother returned
the compliment by covering the young Cheyenne with a handsome blanket.
Undoubtedly these early contests had their influence upon our hero's career. It was his habit to
appear most opportunely in a crisis, and in a striking and dramatic manner to take command of the
 The best known example of this is his entrance on the scene of confusion when Reno surprised the
Sioux on the Little Big Horn. Many of the excitable youths, almost unarmed, rushed madly and blindly
to meet the intruder, and the scene might have unnerved even an experienced warrior. It was Gall,
with not a garment upon his superb body, who on his black charger dashed ahead of the boys and faced
them. He stopped them on the dry creek, while the bullets of Reno's men whistled about their ears.
"Hold hard, men! Steady, we are not ready yet! Wait for more guns, more horses, and the day is
They obeyed, and in a few minutes the signal to charge was given, and Reno retreated pell mell
before the onset of the Sioux.
Sitting Bull had confidence in his men so long as Gall planned and directed the attack, whether
against United States soldiers or the warriors of another tribe. He
 as a strategist, and able in a twinkling to note and seize upon an advantage. He was really the
mainstay of Sitting Bull's effective last stand. He consistently upheld his people's right to their
buffalo plains and believed that they should hold the government strictly to its agreements with
them. When the treaty of 1868 was disregarded, he agreed with Sitting Bull in defending the last of
their once vast domain, and after the Custer battle entered Canada with his chief. They hoped to
bring their lost cause before the English government and were much disappointed when they were asked
to return to the United States.
Gall finally reported at Fort Peck, Montana, in 1881, and brought half of the Hunkpapa band with
him, whereupon he was soon followed by Sitting Bull himself. Although they had been promised by the
United States commission who went to Canada to treat with them that they would not be punished if
they returned, no sooner had Gall come down than a part of his
 people were attacked, and in the spring they were all brought to Fort Randall and held as military
prisoners. From this point they were returned to Standing Rock agency.
When "Buffalo Bill" successfully launched his first show, he made every effort to secure both
Sitting Bull and Gall for his leading attractions. The military was in complete accord with him in
this, for they still had grave suspicions of these two leaders. While Sitting Bull reluctantly
agreed, Gall haughtily said: "I am not an animal to be exhibited before the crowd," and retired to
his teepee. His spirit was much worn, and he lost strength from that time on. That superb manhood
dwindled, and in a few years he died. He was a real hero of a free and natural people, a type that
is never to be seen again.
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