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ON THE BORDER-LAND OF SPIRITS
Death and Funeral Customs. The Sacred Lock of Hair. Reincarnation and the Converse of Spirits.
Occult and Psychic Powers. The Gift of Prophecy.
 THE attitude of the Indian toward death, the test and background of life, is entirely consistent
with his character and philosophy. Death has no terrors for him; he meets it with simplicity and
perfect calm, seeking only an honorable end as his last gift to his family and descendants.
Therefore he courts death in battle; on the other hand, he would
 regard it as disgraceful to be killed in a private quarrel. If one be dying at home, it is customary
to carry his bed out of doors as the end approaches, that his spirit may pass under the open sky.
Next to this, the matter that concerns him most is the parting with his dear ones, especially if he
have any little children who must be left behind to suffer want. His family affections are strong,
and he grieves intensely for the lost, even though he has unbounded faith in a spiritual
The outward signs of mourning for the dead are far more spontaneous and convincing than is the
cor-  rect and well-ordered black of civilization. Both men and women among us loosen their hair and cut
it according to the degree of relationship or of devotion. Consistent with the idea of sacrificing
all personal beauty and adornment, they trim off likewise from the dress its fringes and ornaments,
perhaps cut it short, or cut the robe or blanket in two. The men blacken their faces, and widows or
bereaved parents sometimes gash their arms and legs till they are covered with blood. Giving
themselves up wholly to their grief, they are no longer concerned about any earthly possession, and
often give away all that they
 have to the first comers, even to their beds and their home. Finally, the wailing for the dead is
continued night and day to the point of utter voicelessness; a musical, weird, and heart-piercing
sound, which has been compared to the, "keening" of the Celtic mourner.
The old-time burial of the Plains Indians was upon a scaffold of poles, or a platform among the
boughs of a tree—their only means of placing the body out of reach of wild beasts, as they had no
implements with which to dig a suitable grave. It was prepared by dressing in the finest clothes,
together with some personal possessions and ornaments, wrapped
 in several robes, and finally in a secure covering of raw-hide. As a special mark of respect, the
body of a young woman or a warrior was sometimes laid out in state in a new teepee, with the usual
household articles and even with a dish of food left beside it, not that they supposed the spirit
could use the implements or eat the food but merely as a last tribute. Then the whole people would
break camp and depart to a distance, leaving the dead alone in an honorable solitude.
There was no prescribed ceremony of burial, though the body was carried out with more or less
solemnity by selected young men,
 and sometimes noted warriors were the pall-bearers of a man of distinction. It was usual to choose a
prominent hill with a commanding outlook for the last resting-place of our dead. If a man were slain
in battle, it was an old custom to place his body against a tree or rock in a sitting position,
always facing the enemy, to indicate his undaunted defiance and bravery, even in death.
I recall a touching custom among us, which was designed to keep the memory of the departed near and
warm in the bereaved household. A lock of hair of the beloved dead was wrapped in pretty clothing,
such as it was supposed that he or she
 would like to wear if living. This "spirit bundle," as it was called, was suspended from a tripod,
and occupied a certain place in the lodge which was the place of honor. At every meal time, a dish
of food was placed under it, and some person of the same sex and age as the one who was gone must
afterward be invited in to partake of the food. At the end of a year from the time of death, the
relatives made a public feast and gave away the clothing and other gifts, while the lock of hair was
interred with appropriate ceremonies.
Certainly the Indian never doubted the immortal nature of the spirit or soul of man, but neither did
 to speculate upon its probable state or condition in a future life. The idea of a "happy
hunting-ground" is modern and probably borrowed, or invented by the white man. The primitive Indian
was content to believe that the spirit which the "Great Mystery" breathed into man returns to Him
who gave it, and that after it is freed from the body, it is everywhere and pervades all nature, yet
often lingers near the grave or "spirit bundle" for the consolation of friends, and is able to hear
prayers. So much of reverence was due the disembodied spirit, that it was not customary with us even
to name the dead aloud.
 It is well known that the American Indian had somehow developed occult power, and although in the
latter days there have been many impostors, and, allowing for the vanity and weakness of human
nature, it is fair to assume that there must have been some even in the old days, yet there are
well-attested instances of remarkable prophecies and other mystic practice.
A Sioux prophet predicted the coming of the white man fully fifty years before the event, and even
described accurately his garments and weapons. Before the steamboat was invented, another prophet of
our race described the "Fire Boat" that
 would swim upon their mighty river, the Mississippi, and the date of this prophecy is attested by
the term used, which is long since obsolete. No doubt, many predictions have been colored to suit
the new age, and unquestionably false prophets, fakirs, and conjurers have become the pest of the
tribes during the transition period. Nevertheless, even during this period there was here and there
a man of the old type who was implicitly believed in to the last.
Notable among these was Ta-chank-pee Ho-tank-a, or His War Club Speaks Loud, who foretold a year in
advance the details of a great war-party against the Ojibways.
 There were to be seven battles, all successful except the last, in which the Sioux were to be taken
at a disadvantage and suffer crushing defeat. This was carried out to the letter. Our people
surprised and slew many of the Ojibways in their villages, but in turn were followed and cunningly
led into an ambush whence but few came out alive. This was only one of his remarkable prophecies.
Another famous "medicine-man" was born on the Rum River about one hundred and fifty years ago, and
lived to be over a century old. He was born during a desperate battle with the Ojibways, at a moment
 when, as it seemed, the band of Sioux engaged were to be annihilated. Therefore the child's
grandmother exclaimed: "Since we are all to perish, let him die a warrior's death in the field!" and
she placed his cradle under fire, near the spot where his uncle and grandfathers were fighting, for
he had no father. But when an old man discovered the new-born child, he commanded the women to take
care of him, "for," said he, "we know not how precious the strength of even one warrior may some day
become to his nation!"
This child lived to become great among us, as was intimated to the
 superstitious by the circumstances of his birth. At the age of about seventy-five years, he saved
his band from utter destruction at the hands of their ancestral enemies, by suddenly giving warning
received in a dream of the approach of a large war-party. The men immediately sent out scouts, and
felled trees for a stockade, barely in time to meet and repel the predicted attack. Five years
later, he repeated the service, and again saved his people from awful slaughter. There was no
confusion of figures or omens, as with lesser medicine-men, but in every incident that is told of
him his interpretation of the sign,
what-  ever it was, proved singularly correct.
The father of Little Crow, the chief who led the "Minnesota massacre" of 1862, was another prophet
of some note. One of his characteristic prophecies was made only a few years before he died, when he
had declared that, although already an old man, he would go once more upon the war-path. At the
final war-feast, he declared that three of the enemy would be slain, but he showed great distress
and reluctance in foretelling that he would lose two of his own men. Three of the Ojibways were
indeed slain as he had said, but in the battle the
 old war prophet lost both of his two sons.
There are many trustworthy men, and men of Christian faith, to vouch for these and similar events
occurring as foretold. I cannot pretend to explain them, but I know that our people possessed
remarkable powers of concentration and abstraction, and I sometimes fancy that such nearness to
nature as I have described keeps the spirit sensitive to impressions not commonly felt, and in touch
with the unseen powers. Some of us seemed to have a peculiar intuition for the locality of a grave,
which they explained by saying that they had received a
com-  munication from the spirit of the departed. My own grandmother was one of these, and as far back as
I can remember, when camping in a strange country, my brother and I would search for and find human
bones at the spot she had indicated to us as an ancient burial-place or the spot where a lone
warrior had fallen. Of course, the outward signs of burial had been long since obliterated.
The Scotch would certainly have declared that she had the "second sight," for she had other
remarkable premonitions or intuitions within my own recollection. I have heard her speak of a
sensa-  tion in the breast, by which, as she said, she was advised of anything of importance concerning her
absent children. Other native women have claimed a similar monitor, but I never heard of one who
could interpret it with such accuracy. We were once camping on Lake Manitoba when we received news
that my uncle and his family had been murdered several weeks before, at a fort some two hundred
miles distant. While all our clan were wailing and mourning their loss, my grandmother calmly bade
them cease, saying that her son was approaching, and that they would see him shortly. Although we
 other reason to doubt the ill tidings, it is a fact that my uncle came into camp two days after his
At another time, when I was fourteen years old, we had just left Fort Ellis on the Assiniboine
River, and my youngest uncle had selected a fine spot for our night camp. It was already after
sundown, but my grandmother became unaccountably nervous, and positively refused to pitch her tent.
So we reluctantly went on down the river, and camped after dark at a secluded place. The next day we
learned that a family who were following close behind had stopped at the place first selected
 by my uncle, but were surprised in the night by a roving war-party, and massacred to a man. This
incident made a great impression upon our people.
Many of the Indians believed that one may be born more than once, and there were some who claimed to
have full knowledge of a former incarnation. There were also those who held converse with a "twin
spirit," who had been born into another tribe or race. There was a well-known Sioux war-prophet who
lived in the middle of the last century, so that he is still remembered by the old men of his band.
After he had reached middle age, he declared that
 he had a spirit brother among the Ojibways, the ancestral enemies of the Sioux. He even named the
band to which his brother belonged, and said that he also was a war-prophet among his people.
Upon one of their hunts along the border between the two tribes, the Sioux leader one evening called
his warriors together, and solemnly declared to them that they were about to meet a like band of
Ojibway hunters, led by his spirit twin. Since this was to be their first meeting since they were
born as strangers, he earnestly begged the young men to resist the temptation to join battle with
their tribal foes.
 "You will know him at once," the prophet said to them, "for he will not only look like me in face
and form, but he will display the same totem, and even sing my war songs!"
They sent out scouts, who soon returned with news of the approaching party. Then the leading men
started with their peace-pipe for the Ojibway camp, and when they were near at hand they fired three
distinct volleys, a signal of their desire for a peaceful meeting.
The response came in like manner, and they entered the camp, with the peace-pipe in the hands of the
 Lo, the stranger prophet advanced to meet them, and the people were greatly struck with the
resemblance between the two men, who met and embraced one another with unusual fervor.
It was quickly agreed by both parties that they should camp together for several days, and one
evening the Sioux made a "warriors' feast" to which they invited many of the Ojibways. The prophet
asked his twin brother to sing one of his sacred songs, and behold! it was the very song that he
himself was wont to sing. This proved to the warriors beyond doubt or cavil the claims of their
 Such are the beliefs in which I was reared—the secret ideals which have nourished in the American
Indian a unique character among the peoples of the earth. Its simplicity, its reverence, its bravery
and uprightness must be left to make their own appeal to the American of to-day, who is the
inheritor of our homes, our names, and our traditions. Since there is nothing left us but
remembrance, at least let that remembrance be just!