Hundreds of additional titles available for
online reading when you join Gateway to the Classics
ROUND THE WORLD
 SO we see that both of Drake's ships, the Pascha and the Swan, were left behind in the West
Indies, and he made a quick voyage home in the well-built Spanish frigate. We hear nothing of Drake for two
years after his return to Plymouth. There is a legend that he kept on the seas near Ireland. Elizabeth was
still unable and unwilling to go to war with the King of Spain, but she was willing to encourage the sort of
warfare that Drake and the other rovers had so successfully carried on against him.
Such companies of adventurers as these that sailed under Drake and Hawkins did a large part of the work of the
navy in the time of Elizabeth. The country was saved the expense which private persons were willing to pay to
furnish the ships.
 The Queen herself is known to have shared in the expenses and plunder of some such expeditions, and so she
thriftily laid up treasure in England's empty money-chests. But some of her older councillors disliked
exceedingly this way of getting rich, and would rather it had been done openly in war, or not at all.
To Drake it seems to have been a very simple affair. He wished, in the first place, as the old book says, "to
lick himself whole of the damage he had received from the Spaniards." So he acted in pirate-fashion to the
Spaniards, but not to the French or to the natives of the West Indies. And Drake considered his own cause so
just that he never made a secret of his doings. He went at his own risk, for should he be taken by the enemy
his country had no power to protect him, as she was not openly at war with Spain. But, on the other hand, he
was secretly encouraged, and his gains were immense.
In the second place, Drake wished to attack and injure the Roman Catholic faith whenever and wherever he
could. Churchmen had told him that this was a lawful aim. How earnestly, he believed it we can
 see from the story, where he tried to persuade the Maroons to "leave their crosses," which to him were the
sign of the hated religion. The terrible tale of the massacre of the Protestants on St. Bartholomew's Day told
him by the French captain (who himself fell into the hands of the Spaniards, as we have seen), must have
inflamed this feeling in his soul and in those of his men. It made them more eager than ever to fight the
enemies of their own faith.
Then, too, the Spaniards founded their rights to own the New World upon a grant from one of the Popes; and the
English, now no longer Catholics, denied his power to give it, and claimed the right for themselves to explore
and conquer and keep what share they could get.
The King of Spain looked upon Drake as a pirate, but he could not find out how far he had been secretly
encouraged by Elizabeth, and Drake was not punished, in spite of Philip's urgent complaints. But he was
prevented from sailing away again on a voyage of discovery, though his friends and brothers went, and among
them John Oxenham, who was hanged as a pirate by
 the Spaniards because he had no commission or formal leave from the Queen or the Government to trade in the
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.
During this interval Drake took service in Ireland, under the Earl of Essex, furnishing his own ships, "and
doing excellent service both by sea and land at the winning of divers strong forts." The work he took a part
in was as harsh and cruel as any that was ever done by fire and sword to make Ireland more desolate. Here he
met Thomas Doughty, one of the household of the Earl of Essex, a scholar and a soldier, who became his friend,
and sailed with him on his next voyage.
The story of this voyage is told under the name of "The World Encompassed," and in it Drake is said "to have
turned up a furrow about the whole world." In 1520 Magellan had discovered the passage south of America from
the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, since called by his name. Many adventurers had tried to follow him, but all
their efforts had ended disaster, and the Straits had an uncanny name among sailors, and "were counted so
terrible in those days that the very thoughts of attempting them were dreadful."
 Drake's fleet was made up of five ships—the Pelican, which was his flagship, the
Elizabeth, the Marigold, the Swan, and the Christopher. They took a hundred and
sixty men and plentiful provisions and stores for the long and dangerous voyage. They also took pinnaces which
could be set up when wanted. Nor did Drake forget to "make provision for ornament and delight, carrying to
this purpose with him expert musicians, rich furniture (all the vessels for his table, yea, many belonging to
the cook-room, being of pure silver)."
They started on November 15, 1577, but were forced by a gale to put back into Plymouth for repairs, and
started out again on December 13. The sailors were not told the real aim of the voyage, which was to "sail
upon those seas greatly longed for." They were too full of fears and fancies. The unknown was haunted in their
minds with devils and hurtful spirits, and in those days people still believed in magic.
They picked up several prizes on their way out, notably a large Portuguese ship, whose cargo of wine and food
was valuable to the English ships. Drake sent the passengers and crew on shore, but kept the
 pilot, Numa da Silva; who gives one account of the voyage, and was most useful, as he knew the coasts so well.
One of Drake's main cares on this voyage, we are told, was to keep the fleet together as much as possible, to
get fresh water, and to refresh the men, "wearied with long toils at sea," as often as possible. He decided to
lessen the number of the ships, for "fewer ships keep better company," and he looked for a harbour to anchor
"Our General," says the book, "especially in matters of moment, was never one to rely only on other men's
care, how trusty or skilful soever they might seem to be. But always scorning danger, and refusing no toil, he
was wont himself to be one, whosoever was a second, at every turn, where courage, skill, or industry was to be
employed. Neither would he at any time entrust the discovery of these dangers to another's pains, but rather
to his own experience in searching out and sounding of them."
So in this case Drake himself went out in the boat and rowed into the bay. The Swan, the
Christopher, and the prize were sacrificed, their stores being used for the other ships.
 On the 20th of June they anchored in a very good harbour, called by Magellan Fort St. Julian. Here a gibbet
stood upon the land, and in this place Magellan is supposed to have executed some disobedient and rebellious
men of his company. In this port Drake began to "inquire diligently into the actions of Master Thomas Doughty,
and found them not to be such as he looked for."
(Doughty is said to have plotted to kill Drake or desert him, and take his place as commander, or at any rate
to force him to go back, to the ruin of the voyage.)
Whereupon the company was called together, and the particulars of the cause made known to them, which were
found partly by Master Doughty's own confession, and partly by the evidence of the fact, to be true. Which
when our General saw, although his private affection to Master Doughty (as he then in the presence of us all
sacredly protested) was great; yet the care he had of the state of the voyage, of the expectation of her
Majesty, and of the honour of his country, did more touch him (as indeed it ought) than the private respect of
one man. So that the cause being thoroughly heard, and all things done in
 good order, as near as might be to the course of our laws in England, it was concluded that Master Doughty,
should receive punishment according to the quality of the offence. And he, seeing no remedy but patience for
himself, desired before his death to receive the Communion, which he did, at the hands of our minister, and
our General himself accompanied him in that holy actionů
"And after this holy repast, they dined also at the same table together, as cheerfully, in sobriety, as ever
in their lives they had done aforetime, each cheering up the other, and taking their leave, by drinking each
to other, as if some journey only had been in hand.
"And the place of execution being ready, he having embraced our General, and taken his leave of all the
company, with prayer for the Queen's Majesty and our realm, in quiet sort laid his head to the block, where he
ended his life. This being done, our General made various speeches to the whole company, persuading us to
unity, obedience, love and regard of our voyage. And to help us to this, he willed every man the next Sunday
following to prepare himself to
re-  ceive the Communion as Christian brethren and friends ought to do, which was done in very reverent sort, and
so with good contentment every man went about his business."
On the 11th of August, as quarrelling still continued, Drake ordered the whole ships' companies ashore. They
all went into a large tent, and the minister offered to make a sermon. "Nay, soft, Master Fletcher," said
Drake, "I must preach this day myself; although I have small skill in preaching. . . . I am a very bad
speaker, for my bringing up hath not been in learning."
He then told them that for what he was going to say he would answer in England and before her Majesty. He and
his men were far away from their country and friends, and discords and mutiny had grown up among them. "By the
life of God," said Drake, "it doth take my wits from me to think on it. Here is such quarrels between the
sailors and the gentlemen as it doth make me mad to hear it. But, my masters, I must have it left [off], for I
must have the gentleman to haul and draw with the mariner, and the mariner with the gentleman. What, let us
show ourselves all to be of a company, and
 let us not give occasion to the enemy to rejoice at our decay and overthrow. I would know him that would
refuse to set his hand to a rope, but I know there is not any such here. . . ."
He then offered to send any home that liked in the Marigold, a well-furnished ship "but let them take heed
that they go homeward, for if I find them in my way I will surely sink them, therefore you shall have time to
consider here until to-morrow; for by my troth I must needs be plain with you now."
"Yet the voice was that none would return, they would all take such part as he did." And so, after more of
such "preaching," they were told to forget the past, and "wishing all men to be friends, he willed them to
depart about their business."