DEFEAT OF PORUS
 NOW that Darius was dead, Alexander took the Persian
title of "Shah in Shah" (king of kings), and became
ruler of all the empire which had been subject to the
He was so proud of his new state and of his vast
conquests, that he entirely forgot that he owed them
mostly to his brave generals and soldiers; and he
became so obstinate, that he would no longer listen to
any advice, and only thought of having his own way.
His father's general, Parmenio, who had always given
him the wisest counsel, was no longer in favor, because
he tried to restrain the king's extravagance. Indeed,
Alexander's once generous and noble nature was so
changed, that, when his courtiers accused Parmenio of
treachery, he listened to them, and actually put the
faithful general to death.
Every day now Alexander indulged in feasts and
banquets, always drinking more and more, although it
was affecting his health as well as his temper.
Clytus, the son of his old nurse, tried to check his
excesses, but only succeeded in provoking his wrath.
On one occasion such remonstrances so enraged
Alexander, that in his drunken fury he seized a spear
and killed Clytus. When he saw him dead at his feet,
the king realized what a terrible crime he had
committed, and felt deep remorse for a short time.
He reformed, and instead of giving himself up entirely
to pleasure, spent the next two years in the work
 of governing Persia, where he founded several cities
called by his name.
As all the central part of Asia now acknowledged his
rule, he next went down into India, where he found King
Porus, the bravest adversary he had ever met. This
king, whose realm was in the northwestern part of
India, came against Alexander with a very large army.
In the ranks were many elephants, trained to crush the
enemy beneath their huge feet, and bearing on their
broad backs wooden turrets filled with brave fighting
men and good archers.
In spite of these elephants, which at first awakened
great fear in the Greek soldiers, the Macedonian
phalanx won the victory as usual, and Porus was made
prisoner. He was led into the presence of Alexander,
who haughtily asked him how he expected to be treated.
"Like a king!" was the proud reply.
This answer so pleased Alexander, that he not only set
Porus free, but even allowed him to keep his kingdom,
after he had sworn to be the faithful subject of his
Alexander, having thus won the help and affection of
Porus, made war against several other Indian kings, and
continued his advance toward the south. In one of
these battles he lost his faithful steed Bucephalus,
which had borne him safely through many a fight.
Alexander felt this loss deeply, and not only had a
monument built over his remains, but also founded a
city near by, which was called Bucephala.