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KING FROM 768-814 A.D.
 PEPIN had two sons Charles and Carloman. After the death of their
father they ruled together, but in a few years Carloman died, and
then Charles became sole king.
This Charles was the most famous of the kings of the Franks. He
did so many great and wonderful things that he is called
Charlemagne, which means Charles the Great.
He was a great soldier. For thirty years he carried on a war
against the Saxons. Finally he conquered them, and their great
chief, Wittekind, submitted to him. The Saxons were a people of
Germany, who then lived near the land of the Franks. They spoke
the same language and were of the same race as the Franks, but had
not been civilized by contact with the Romans.
They were still pagans, just as the Franks had been before Clovis
became a Christian. They actually offered human sacrifices.
 After Charlemagne conquered them he made their lands part of his
kingdom. A great number of them, among whom was Wittekind, then
became Christians and were baptized; and soon they had churches
and schools in many parts of their country.
THE BAPTISM OF WITTEKIND
Another of Charlemagne's wars was against the Lombards.
Pepin, as you have read, had defeated the Lombards and given to
the Pope part of the country held by them. The Lombard king now
invaded the Pope's lands and threatened Rome itself; so the Pope
sent to Charlemagne for help.
Charlemagne quickly marched across the Alps and attacked the Lombards.
He drove them out of the Pope's lands and took possession of their
After he had conquered the Lombards he carried on war, in 778,
in Spain. A large portion of Spain was then held by the Moorish
Saracens. But a Mohammedan leader from Damascus had invaded
their country, and the Moors invited Charlemagne to help them. He
therefore led an army across the Pyrenees. He succeeded in putting
his Moorish friends in possession of their lands in Spain and then
set out on his return to his own country.
On the march his army was divided into two parts. The main body
was led by Charlemagne
 himself. The rear guard was commanded by
a famous warrior named Roland. While marching through the narrow
pass of Roncesvalles, among the Pyrenees, Roland's
division was attacked by a tribe called the Basques, who
lived on the mountain slopes of the neighboring region.
High cliffs walled in the pass on either side. From the tops of
these cliffs the Basques hurled down rocks and trunks of trees upon
the Franks, and crushed many of them to death. Besides this, the
wild mountaineers descended into the pass and attacked them with
weapons. Roland fought bravely; but at last he was overpowered,
and he and all his men were killed.
ROLAND IN THE BATTLE OF RONCESVALLES
Roland had a friend and companion named Oliver, who was as brave
as himself. Many stories and songs have been written telling of
the wonderful adventures they were said to have had and of their
wonderful deeds in war.
The work of Charlemagne in Spain was quickly undone; for Abd-er-Rahman,
the leader of the Mohammedans who had come from Damascus, soon
conquered almost all the territory south of the Pyrenees.
For more than forty years Charlemagne was king of the Franks; but
a still greater dignity was to come to him. In the year 800 some
of the people
 in Rome rebelled against the Pope, and Charlemagne
went with an army to put down the rebellion. He entered the city
with great pomp and soon conquered the rebels. On Christmas day he
went to the church of St. Peter, and as he knelt before the altar
the Pope placed a crown upon his head, saying:
"Long live Charles Augustus, Emperor of the Romans."
THE POPE CROWNING CHARLEMAGNE
The people assembled in the church shouted the same words; and so
Charlemagne was now emperor of the Western Roman Empire, as well
as king of the Franks.
Charlemagne built a splendid palace at Aix-la-Chapelle,
a town in Germany, where perhaps he was born.
Charlemagne was a tall man, with long, flowing beard, and of noble
appearance. He dressed in very simple style; but when he went into
battle he wore armor, as was the custom for kings and nobles, and
often for ordinary soldiers, in his day.
Armor was made of leather or iron, or both together. There was a
helmet of iron for the head, and a breastplate to cover the breast,
or a coat of
 mail to cover the body. The coat of mail was made
of small iron or steel rings linked together, or fastened on to a
leather shirt. Coverings for the legs and feet were often attached
to the coat.
CHARLEMAGNE was a great king in may other ways besides the fighting
of battles. He did much for the good of his people. He made
many excellent laws and appointed judges to see that the laws were
carried out. He established schools and placed good teachers in
charge of them. He had a school in his palace for his own children,
and he employed as their teacher a very learned Englishman named
In those times few people could read or write. There were not
many schools anywhere, and in most places there were none at all.
Even the kings had little education. Indeed, few of them could
write their own names, and most of them did not care about sending
their children to school. They did not think that reading or
writing was of much use; but thought that it was far better for
boys to learn to be good soldiers, and for girls to learn to spin
 Charlemagne had a very different opinion. He was fond of learning;
and whenever he heard of a learned man, living in any foreign
country, he tried to get him to come and live in Frankland.
The fame of Charlemagne as a great warrior and a wise emperor
spread all over the world. Many kings sent messengers to him
to ask his friendship, and bring him presents.
Harun-al-Rashid, the famous caliph, who lived at Bagdad,
in Asia, sent him an elephant and a clock which struck the hours.
The Franks were much astonished at the sight of the elephant; for
they had never seen one before. They also wondered much at the
clock. In those days there were in Europe no clocks such as we
have; but water-clocks and hour-glasses were used in some places.
The water-clock was a vessel into which water was allowed to trickle.
It contained a float which pointed to a scale of hours at the side
of the vessel. The float gradually rose as the water trickled in.
The hour-glasses measured time by the falling of fine sand from
the top to the bottom of a glass vessel made with a narrow neck in
the middle for the sand to go through. They were like the little
glasses called egg-timers, which are used for measuring the time
for boiling eggs.
 Charlemagne died in 814. He was buried in the church which he had
built at Aix-la-Chapelle. His body was placed in the tomb, seated
upon a grand chair, dressed in royal robes, with a crown on the
head, a sword at the side, and a Bible in the hands.
This famous emperor is known in history as Charlemagne, which is
the French word for the German name Karl der Grosse (Charles the
Great), the name by which he was called at his own court during
his life. The German name would really be a better name for him;
for he was a German, and German was the language that he spoke.
The common name of his favorite residence, Aix-la-Chapelle, also
is French, but he knew the place as Aachen.
The great empire which Charlemagne built up held together only
during the life of his son. Then it was divided among his three
grandsons. Louis took the eastern part, Lothaire took
the central part, with the title of emperor, and Charles took the