SPAIN UNDER THE HAPSBURGS
 FERDINAND and Isabella were singularly unhappy in the misfortunes of all their five children. These
were sought in marriage by Europe's foremost rulers; but Isabella's only son and two of
her daughters died in their early days of youth and promise. Of the two surviving
daughters, the younger was that Catharine of Spain, who wedded Henry VIII. of England, and
to divorce whom he broke with the Pope and quarrelled with most of Europe.
The older daughter, Joanna, was married to Philip of Hapsburg, only son of the great
German Emperor, Maximilian of Austria. This young couple thus seemed ultimately destined
to rule the combined Spanish and Austrian possessions, then at their widest extent,
including all America and most of Europe. But alas! Philip died, and Joanna, who had loved
him devotedly and had always shown symptoms of insanity, went completely out of her mind
at his loss. It is one of the saddest tales in history; for the poor mad queen insisted
that her husband was not dead, and she bore his coffin everywhere about with her.
This final breakdown of her intellect did not come until after Isabella had died and
Joanna had borne to Philip two sons, to be inheritors of all this wealth and sorrow.
Joanna's oldest son, Charles of Hapsburg, was named King of Castile, in 1504, to succeed
his grandmother, Isabella. But as Charles was an infant, as his mother was insane, and as
his Austrian father, Philip, soon died,
 the real control of Castile remained in the same hands that had so long held it, those of
Ferdinand of Aragon, widowed now, grown old, and cold, and very wise, and very crafty.
No difficulties of state marred his reign, and at his death, in 1516, he left the Spanish
domain at its highest efficiency. Young Charles, a cold and shy but highly educated lad of
sixteen, inherited all his grandfather's possessions, and was promptly declared to be of
age, King of Aragon as well as Castile, and of all Aragon s Italian possessions. A year
later his other grandfather, the German Emperor Maximilian, also died, and Charles
succeeded to all the properties of the great house of Hapsburg.
CONDEMNED BY THE INQUISITION.
Of the reign of this young world-ruler, Charles I. of Spain, Charles V. of Germany, you
have already heard. He was neither Austrian, nor German, nor Spanish. He had been born at
Ghent, in the Netherlands, where his father, Philip, held rule, and his early training was
Taking up the rule of Spain where Ferdinand had laid it down, Charles easily made his
authority there absolute. Spain had, indeed, a sort of parliament called the Cortes, but
Ferdinand had deprived this of almost all power. The Spaniards had learned to trust their
sovereigns, and there was no machinery of government to thwart the young despot's will.
The nobles, indeed, looked with dislike upon the rule of a man who was not a Spaniard. In
those days, the voyage between the Netherlands and Spain was a considerable undertaking;
and Ferdinand had left a will placing the kingdom in charge of Cardinal Ximenes as regent
until the arrival of Charles. The cardinal was an able and wise prelate, who did much to
smooth the way for the new sovereign. Had he not done so, there might have been open
revolt. It required months of urging on the part of Ximenes before Charles visited his
dominion, but he finally set out, and arrived in the month of September, 1517. He treated
his faithful servant with such gross discourtesy that Ximenes died before completing two
years of his regency. This insulting course, it is said, was due to the interference of
the King's Flemish ministers, he having assumed the rule of Flanders several years before.
When the Emperor Maximilian died, there were a number of competitors for the imperial
throne of Germany. Charles was elected, mainly through the influence of the Elector
Frederick of Saxony, and on the 22nd of October, 1520, was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the
Pope giving him the title of Roman Emperor. You will recognize the period as one of
tremendous agitation in Germany owing to the crusade against the Catholic Church by
Luther. Alarmed by the excitement which threatened a convulsion and overturning of
everything, the famous Diet of Worms was held in 1521, before which Luther made his
declaration that marks an epoch in the history of Protestantism.
 Meanwhile, the towns of Castile had leagued themselves together in a war to maintain their
ancient liberties. The Emperor marched thither a force which brought them under
subjection. Soon after he became involved in a war with the Turks under Solyman the Great,
and also defeated them. Then followed a war with France, whose armies, after long fighting
and varied fortune, were driven out of most of their conquests in Italy. Francis I. of
France became a prisoner to Charles at Pavia, in 1525.
QUEEN JOANNA WITH HER HUSBAND'S COFFIN.
Connected with those stirring times is the history of Ignatius de Loyola, born in the
Basque provinces, in 1491. He served a while as page in the court of Ferdinand, and then
his restless nature led him to embrace the profession of arms. His fortitude was proved
when in battle he received two frightful wounds in the legs, was taken prisoner by the
French, and by them carried to his paternal castle of Loyola, where he hovered between
life and death for a long time owing to a severe surgical operation. When he recovered, he
found himself suffering from a partial deformity, owing to the poor setting of one of the
fractured limbs. He had it re-broken and set again, and then, since another long and
tedious confinement was before him, his light-hearted and frivolous temperament found
relief in reading all the romances upon which he could lay hands. When the stock was
exhausted, he took up the solemn volume, "Lives of the Saints." He became absorbed, and
was soon thrilled with a spiritual enthusiasm, that led him to throw aside his military
ambition, turn his back on his friends, and give all his energies to the cause of
In the garb of a wretched beggar he retired to the monastery of Montserrat and hung up his
arms as token that henceforward his life was to be devoted to spiritual warfare.
Withdrawing to a secluded cavern, he led such a life of austerity and self-denial that he
was utterly worn out and was carried back to the hospital in which he had formerly served.
When his powers rallied, he made his way to Rome, where he received the papal benediction
of Adrian VI., and then trudged as a beggar to Venice and embarked for the Holy Land. His
wish was to remain at Jerusalem and preach to the infidels, but the local authorities
discouraged him, and he returned to Venice and Barcelona. Conscious of his deficiency in
education, he set resolutely to work, when past the age of thirty, to learn the rudiments
of grammar. He spent years in study at different places, and completed his task in Paris,
sometimes incurring the censure of the authorities by his attempts at religious teaching
in public. There it was that he formed the organization of the Jesuits, whose influence
has been of the most marked nature on the religious and moral character of the modern
world. His biography has been written in nearly all languages. Dying In 1556, his name was
admitted to the preliminary step of beatification in the
 Church of Rome, in 1609, and he was solemnly canonized as a saint in 1622, by Gregory XV.
The Pope became alarmed over the continuous successes of Charles and made common cause
with France and the leading Italian States, declaring the King of France released from the
obligations assumed in his treaty with Charles. The Pope was jealous of any encroachments
upon his Italian domains, and was determined to keep the Emperor out of them, but his
attempt was the sowing of the wind and the reaping of the whirlwind; for Charles of
Bourbon, former Constable of France, captured and plundered Rome and made the Pope himself
prisoner. Here was an opportunity for Charles to play the hypocrite, and he did it to
perfection. He expressed great sorrow for the occurrence, caused his court to go into
mourning, and directed prayers to be said for the liberation of the holy father, and yet
it was by the Emperor's own orders that he was kept prisoner for many months. Peace was
made in 1529 on terms satisfactory to Charles.
The tumult created by Luther would not down, and Charles was hopeful of bringing it to an
end and restoring tranquillity to the empire; but he would not recognize the principles of
the Protestants, and they on their part refused to help him in his war with the Turks, who
had overrun Hungary and were besieging Vienna. The Protestant princes went further, and,
in 1531, formed the League of Smalcald, allying themselves with England and France as a
means of self-protection. The Turks were still threatening Austria, and Charles perforce
made some concessions to the Protestants.
Two brothers known as Barbarossa, renegade Greeks, had made themselves the terror of the
Mediterranean. As Mahometan corsairs, they became masters of Algeria and Tunis, and robbed
and slew with as much daring as did their successors nearly three centuries later, when
the United States brought them to terms. Spain and Italy suffered so much from these
pirates that their commerce was in danger of extinction. The Barbarossas were established
in Tunis, whither Charles sent an expedition from Spain against them. The miscreants were
utterly defeated, and more than 20,000 Christian captives, belonging to different nations,
which would do nothing for them, were set free. This naturally added to the popularity of
the Emperor, but he alienated his own people by his subsequent course. War broke out with
France, and a truce was established, but it did not last long, and hostilities began again
in 1542. The great success which seemed always to follow Charles did not desert him now,
and he was successful at Muhlberg in April, 1547, against the Protestant princes of
THE BIRTH OF CHARLES V.
Now, however, the tide turned. It was so plain to all that Charles meant to convert the
German empire into a hereditary possession of his family that a
 more formidable opposition than ever arose, and the Emperor was compelled to yield before
Duke Maurice of Saxony and the Protestants. Unable to escape the humiliation, he pledged
them the peaceful enjoyment of their religion, and this pledge was confirmed by the Diet
of Augsburg, in 1555.
"Vanity of vanities—all is vanity!" Charles became weary of the ceaseless vexations
and never-ending trials of his stormy life, and determined to fling the burden from his
shoulders. There was only one way of doing this, and he did it. Perhaps he was disgusted
with his own tortuous course, his intrigue, his double dealing, and the seeming
impossibility of leading an honest life. On the 25th of October, 1555, he called together
an assembly of his States and announced his purpose of seeking repose and devoting the
remainder of his days to the service of God. He resigned his royal rights in favor of his
son, but was unable to secure for him the imperial throne. Relinquishing to him the crown
of Spain, the Emperor retired to the monastery of Yuste, in Estremadura, where he thought
he was serving God by spending a part of his time in mechanical amusements, a greater part
in eating and drinking, and a much less part in religious exercises. Then he became a
gloomy ascetic, discontented with himself and with the world, unhappy and miserable, and
so he died, September 21, 1558.
Among his Spanish subjects Charles was always fairly popular. He was a mighty sovereign
whose state lent splendor to their land, not seen sufficiently often to become familiar
and despised. He crushed the power of the nobles, which naturally won him favor with the
poorer classes, and he offered to the hardy Spanish fighters a field of adventure and
plunder in Germany, of which they eagerly took advantage. The Spanish troops, trained by
centuries of fighting, were long reckoned the best of Europe.
Charles was succeeded by his brother Ferdinand as Emperor, while his only son became
Philip II. of Spain. Philip was born at Valladolid in 1527, and educated with extreme
care. Possessing decided ability, he became a noted mathematician and accomplished
linguist, but with all this he was a man of singular temperament and tastes. He despised
the chivalric ideas of the time, was very reserved, rarely smiled, and seemed to distrust
everybody. He spoke with such extraordinary slowness that it was impossible for it to be
natural, and he assumed a calmness under the most exciting occasions that deceived no one.
He was in his teens when entrusted under the direction of a council with the government of
Spain, and when sixteen he espoused Mary of Portugal, who died three years later. He
followed exactly the policy of his father, which was the maintenance and extension of
absolute rule, and the unwavering support and propagation of the Catholic religion.
In 1554 Philip married Mary Tudor, Queen of England. His absorbing
 ambition was to restore England to the Catholic Church; and, to win the confidence of his
wife's subjects, he threw off his natural reserve and did all he could to ingratiate
himself into their favor. His purpose was discovered. Added to his humiliating
disappointment was the nagging jealousy of his wife, so Philip, in 1555, shook the English
dust from his shoes and never again set foot in that country.
It was in the latter part of the same year, as you will remember, that Philip, through the
abdication of his father, became the most powerful potentate in Europe. Reflect for a
moment upon the immensity of his domain, which included Spain, the two Sicilies, the
Milanese, the Low Countries, Franche Comte, Peru, and Mexico. He had under his control the
best disciplined armies of the age, and they were led by generals who had no superiors
anywhere. No people in Europe were so wealthy as his subjects, though his father's
numerous wars had left little in the national treasury.
Philip was bigoted and intensely eager to begin his crusade for religion; but his hand was
stayed for the time by the league formed by the Pope, the Sultan, and France, to wrest his
Italian dominions from him. He did not wish to go to war with the Pope, but he overcame
his scruples after a while and placed the defence of the two Sicilies in the hands of the
infamous Duke of Alva, who soon drove out the French and the forces of the Pope, and
conquered the papal territories, while Philip himself pressed the war strongly in the
north, where the French were defeated at St. Quentin, in August, 1557, and at Gravelines
in the following July. These Spanish successes compelled his enemies to make peace.
By this time Philip was a widower, and he set out to win the hand of Elizabeth, Queen of
England, who, as you know, refused every offer of that nature. The personality of a wife
or husband makes little difference to a sovereign, and finding he could not secure the
English Queen, Philip turned to Isabella of France, whom having espoused, he returned to
Spain, where he remained.
His realm being at peace, Philip now gave all his energies to. the propagation of his
religion. The first step was to replenish his treasury. He could force any contribution he
wished from Spain and America, for in those places he held absolute sway; but it was
different in his other states, where something in the nature of free institutions
prevailed. As a means, therefore, to this end, the King made the attempt to introduce the
Inquisition into the Low Countries and Italy. The indignant people kept it out of Naples
and Milan, while it was so shackled in Sicily as to be practically powerless. Angered by
these failures, Philip bent all his power to introducing the terrible thing into the Low
Countries. He succeeded, and it raged for a while, but the Catholics joined with the
Protestants in rebellion.
DEFEAT OF THE MAHOMETANS AT LEPANTO.
 The terrible Duke of Alva was sent to suppress the uprising. He established a tribunal,
before which were dragged all suspected heretics or rebels, and his unspeakable cruelties
drove over a hundred thousand fugitives from the country. Flanders, or modern Belgium,
submitted to him in despair; but the northern provinces kept up the struggle, formed the
Dutch Republic, and for over seventy years resisted all the power of Spain. It was this
exhaustive war which perhaps more than any other single cause contributed to the downfall
of Spain. Like the quicksand, the Netherlands devoured men and money in an unending
Meanwhile, Philip's half-brother, Don John of Austria, had conquered the Mahometans of the
East in the great sea-fight of Lepanto (1571), and Philip had plunged still further toward
ruin by despatching against England the "Invincible Armada" (1588).
The direct male line in Portugal became extinct in 1580, and Philip promptly laid claim to
the throne. The Duke of Alva, who had been banished from the Spanish court for a private
quarrel, was summoned by the King to lead an army into Portugal to maintain the claim. The
duke speedily drove out Don Antonio, grandson of John III., who had taken possession of
the throne, and subdued the country. With his usual rapacity and cruelty, Alva seized all
the treasures himself and allowed his soldiers to plunder and ravage at will. Philip
wished to investigate his conduct, but was afraid to do so, and the duke died about a year
The hardly less perfidious Catherine de Medicis had come to power in the French court, and
the union between France and Spain became closer than before. Catherine hesitated to
accept all of Philip's bloody schemes for the extirpation of the heretics, but there is
little doubt that both he and Alva urged her to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew. When the
Huguenot Henry of Navarre became heir-presumptive to the French throne, Philip allied
himself with the Guises and other Catholic leaders who were in revolt. His bigotry led him
to persist in these intrigues long after all possible hope for the Guises had vanished,
and because of this Henry declared war upon him. It went against the Spaniards, who were
glad to make peace in May, 1598. Four months later Philip died in his palace of the
Escurial. It was he who built this celebrated royal residence of the Spanish kings. He
transferred the capital of the country to Madrid, and then built the Escurial outside of
the city. In its gloomy recesses he planned his stealthy plots and treacherous cruelties.
No more fanatical follower of the Catholic faith ever lived than Philip II. He was
absolutely without a drop of mercy in his heart for any one of another religion. Once when
one of his friends protested against some shocking cruelties, he grimly replied that if
his own son were a heretic he could look on and
 enjoy his burning to death. He broke the chivalrous spirit that had once been the pride of
Spain, ground her under his savage oppression, and treated the Moriscos as if they were so
many serpents not fitted to crawl over the ground. Yet it would be passing strange if this
ruler did not have some qualities that can be commended. Petrus Johannes Blok, Professor
of Dutch History in the University of Leyden, has this to say of him:
"Thus died the man who had once been the mightiest prince of the earth, who had dreamed of
universal sovereignty, ever hampered in his ambitions and comprehensive plans by the
weakness of the means as well as the narrowness of his spirit. The universal sovereignty
of Spain and the supremacy of the Catholic Church—these were the two ideas for which
he had lived, welding the two in his spirit into one coherent maxim. From morning to
evening the sombre, reserved man had striven more than forty years for the realization of
this aim, exerting an indefatigable activity, devoting himself in his lonely study to the
great goal for which he was ready to sacrifice everything, and did sacrifice
much—his own happiness, that of his own family, the prosperity, the riches of his
states, the lives of thousands and thousands of his subjects. And when he died he was
further than ever from his goal. He left his successor an exhausted treasury and an empire
ruined by a war which was not yet finished. The curse of posterity was on his memory for
centuries after his death, casting suspicion on his best feelings, his zealous faith, and
his love for his children, as though they were hypocritical. Not until our time has it
been made clear that in the heart of this politician, full of political cunning, of
devilish revenge, of low craft—in the heart of this little-spirited, narrow, sombre,
bitter king—there were also great world-ranging thoughts, noble feelings of belief,
hearty love, rich artistic sympathies, and devotion to higher ideals."
By his fourth wife, Anne of Austria, Philip left a son, born in 1578, who now became
Philip III. In the following year he married the Princess Margaret of Austria, by whom he
had seven children. The assertion has been made that his father, in order to prevent his
son becoming too assertive while still an heir, took measures to have his mind dwarfed.
This is not credible, but Philip III. was in reality little more than an imbecile. He was
lazy, had not the slightest liking for the affairs of state, and, abandoning himself to
indulgence, turned over public matters to miserable favorites. He allowed the war in the
Netherlands to go on, and Ostend was captured in 1604, after a siege of three years. It
was under Philip III. that the last of the Moriscos were, despite their entreaties, driven
out of Spain. He died in 1621, and it is of him that the astounding story is told that one
day he found himself roasting before the fire, whereupon he sent a messenger to tell some
other messenger to tell some one else to instruct still another officer to move him
farther back from
 the flame, but before the whole round required by Spanish etiquette could be completed,
the poor King was so nearly broiled that he fell ill and died.
PHILIP II AT THE ESCURIAL.
This death brought Philip IV. to the throne when seventeen years old. He was little better
than his father, and, like him, turned over the government to a set of incompetents.
Although the country was going down hill fast, the court never saw more splendid
entertainments. To one of these Charles, Prince of Wales, afterward Charles I. of England,
went in company with the Duke of Buckingham in disguise, with the object of wooing the
Infanta Maria, sister of Philip, but the scheme came to naught.
Philip IV. married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry IV. of France, and chose for his first
minister the Count of Olivarez, whose ambition and atrocious policy brought many
calamities to the kingdom. War was renewed with the Dutch, and did not end until the peace
of Westphalia. The Catalans revolted and begged the aid of the French King. Philip roused
himself to conduct the war in person, but Count Olivarez had not the courage to face the
enemy, and set on foot a plot to assassinate Cardinal Richelieu and dethrone the French
King. The war dragged on from 1635 to 1659, when the Catalans grew weary of the French
rule, and were received back into the former fold, without any punishment whatever for
The treaty which brought the end to this strife was known as that of the Pyrenees. It
arranged that the Infanta Maria Teresa should marry Louis XIV. of France. Such an alliance
was sure to create opposition among the other crowned heads, and it was quieted by the
solemn pledge of Louis to yield all his claims to the Spanish crown both for himself and
his successors, but the pledge was broken in the lifetime of Louis himself.
Portugal threw off the Spanish yoke in 1640, and the war thus started lasted till 1665,
when the Portuguese were successful at Villaviciosa. This crowning calamity seemed to
break the heart of Philip, who died three months later. What a melancholy man he must have
been when it is said of him that he was seen to smile only three times during his whole
CHARLES V IN PROCESSION WITH THE POPE.
It must not be forgotten that Velasquez, born at Seville in 1599, became court painter to
Philip IV. in 1623, and was the greatest of Spanish artists. He is noted chiefly as a
portrait painter, and when we look upon the likenesses produced by his marvellous brush,
we know we are gazing into the faces of the most perfect resemblances that human skill can
produce. Velasquez also excelled in history, landscape, and genre, and, like most of the
Spanish painters, he belongs to what is called the naturalist school. His greatest works
are in the galleries of Madrid, whither thousands repair every year to admire them.
This was also the period in which Cervantes, the greatest of Spanish writers
 produced his Don Quixote. Cervantes was a soldier and an adventurer, a playwright and a
teller of short stories; but the foreign world knows him only as the author of Don
Quixote. Whatever of Spanish chivalry had not been crushed by the tyranny of the court and
of the Inquisition, Cervantes laughed out of existence by heaping ridicule upon it in his
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