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Greatest Nations: Vol X—Turkey by  Charles F. Horne




~1250 A.D.Ertoghrul rescues the Sultan of Iconium.
1260Ertoghrul made ruler of Sultan-Śni.
1288Ertoghrul succeeded by his son Osman.
~1301Osman had the public prayers said in his name.
1307Osman cast off the last remnant of vassalage to Iconium.
1318The Turks besieged Brusa.
1326Surrender of Brusa.
~1327Death of Osman, and generous rivalry of his sons Orchan and Aladdin.
1330Capture of Nicma.
1336Karasi added to the Osmanli domains; which extended over all north-western Asia Minor.
1356Solyman led the Turks across the Hellespont; earthquakes facilitated the capture of Gallipoli.
1360Murad I conquered Adrianople and most of the Roman Empire of the East.
1364Turkish victory over the Servians at the Marizza.
1387Decisive defeat of the Caramanians at Iconium.
1389Murad crushed the Servians at Kossova; Bajazet Ilderim annexed Servia.
1396Crusade and Christian defeat at Nicopolis.
1402Timur overthrew Bajazet in the huge battle of Angora.
1403-13Civil war among the sons of Bajazet, ended by the triumph of Mahomet I.
1442Victories of Hunyadi at Hermanstadt and Vasag.
1443Revolt of Scanderbeg.
1444Abdication of Murad II ; his return to the throne, and defeat of the Hungarians at Varna.
1451Murad defeated Hunyadi at Kossova.
1453Final siege and capture of Constantinople by Mahomet II.
1456Mahomet repulsed by Hunyadi at Belgrade.
1460Greece occupied by the Turks.
1475Kaffa, the Genoese metropolis of the Crimea, captured.
1480The Turks seize Otranto in Italy.
1481Civil wars of Bajazet II and his brother Djem.
1512Bajazet II forced to abdicate in favor of his son, Selim the Destroyer.
1513Massacre of thz Shiites.
1514Selim overthrows the Persians at Calderan.
1516He adds Syria to his do-mains by the victory of Aleppo.
1517The Mamelukes defeated at Ridania, and Egypt conquered; Selim becomes Caliph of the Mahometans.
1521Solyman the Magnificent captures Belgrade.
1522Knights of St. John driven from the Isle of Rhodes.
1526Destruction of the Hungarians at Mohacs.
1529Solyman ravages Austria and besieges Vienna.
1533Truce between Solyman and Europe.
1538Naval victory of Barbarossa off Prevesa.
1547Most of Hungary surrendered to Solyman; Ferdinand of Austria pays him tribute.
1566Solyman dies before the fortress of Szigeth, and Selim the Sot begins the decadence of the royal house.
1569First encounter of Turks and Russians.
1571Capture of Cyprus; the sea-fight of Lepanto.
1589Great revolt of the Janizaries; frightful interval of disorder.
1590The cession of Georgia by the Persians expands the Turkish Empire to its widest extent.
1594Uprising of the Christian tributary states, "the Wallachian Vespers."
1596Mahomet III overthrows the Christian armies at Cerestes; the last great Turkish victory.
1622Osman II murdered by the Janizaries.
1636Murad IV recaptures Baghdad.
1656Mahomet Kiuprili made Vizier.
1664Defeat at St. Gotthard.
1669Crete surrenders to the Turks.
1672The Cossacks of the Ukraine secure Turkish protection.
1673Victories of Sobieski at Khoczim and (1675) Lemberg.
1683Kara Mustapha driven back from Vienna; European coalition against the Turks.
1687Turkish defeat at Mohacs.
1689Loss of Belgrade.
1691Defeat at Slankamen.
1697Defeat at Zenta.
1699Peace of Carlowitz, by which Turkey loses Hungary, Azov, the Ukraine and the Peloponnesus.
1711Victory over Peter the Great.
1717Second defeat at Belgrade.
1736The Russians ravage the Crimea.
1787England and Prussia rescue Turkey from the Russians.
1808Selim III attempts reform and is overthrown by the Janizaries.
1820The Albanians and then the Greeks revolt.
1826Mahmud II exterminates the Janizaries.
1827Battle of Navarino.
1828Russian war establishes the independence of Greece.
1839War with Egypt; Turkey rescued by the Western Powers. submits to their tutelage.
1853Russian aggression leads to the Crimean War.
1861Turkish reaction under Abdul Aziz.
1875National bankruptcy; the Balkan rebellion.
1877Russia chastises the Turks again; freedom of the Balkan States.
1897Grco-Turkish war.
1905Turkey defies the Powers on the Macedonian question.

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