THE UNEXPLORED SEAS
 IN Genoa, a famous seaport of Italy, walled in by rocky mountains, Christopher Columbus was born about the year
1447. He was the eldest son of a weaver, and had three brothers and one sister. Two of these brothers,
Bartholomew and Diego, especially the more daring and vigorous Bartholomew, were afterwards his companions and
helpers in his great discoveries.
Their home was not far from the harbour. Very often the children must have wandered down there, and looked at
the great trading ships with their white sails, and the
 long, narrow war-vessels with their rows of oars. And they would talk to the sailors, and hear their stories,
and smell the salt sea smell. So, while Christopher was quite small, the sea mastered him and made him her
own, and when he was fourteen years old he went for his first voyage.
But before this he was sent to the weavers' school, where he was soon taught to read and write. He did so well
that people said of him that if he had spent his time copying letters and documents in his beautiful
handwriting he would have been a rich man. He learned many other things also—arithmetic, and drawing,
and painting, and Latin; and he was especially fond of studies that would help him when he became a sailor,
such as geography and astronomy, the study of the stars that guide the ship by night. Even when he had left
school, and had gone to sea, he made use of his spare time in learning more of these things.
Now, when Christopher Columbus went to sea, sailors did not take very long voyages. In those days, Australia
and America and South Africa were not known, and
 the ships used to keep close to the land as they sailed from one port in France or Spain to another. The
Portuguese, who were the bravest seamen of that time, had sailed some way down the west coast of Africa, but,
as they had no maps to guide them, their ships were often wrecked on the unknown shores.
Men were not, however, as ignorant as they had been, for they had begun to believe that the world was round
like a ball, instead of being flat like a sheet of paper. And they said to themselves, "If it is round, we
should be able to sail on and on till we come back to some place we know." Then they said, "What is the most
distant country we have heard of?" The answer was "Asia." So they thought, "If some one were to sail to the
west over that great Atlantic Ocean, surely he would come at last to Asia." For they did not know that America
lay between, and a man must come there first, as Columbus afterwards found. And no man was brave enough to
try. For the Atlantic Ocean was very terrible with its storms and its unknown miles of sea, and perhaps its
 serpents and monsters; and many ship's captains said, "Ah, yes; but suppose the world were flat after all, and
we came to the edge and fell over. No; we will not go."
As Columbus grew up he thought a great deal about this, and wondered continually whether any one would ever be
able to sail across the Atlantic.
And he did many brave deeds. Once he went with a ship of war to Tunis, while all his men begged him to go back
and ask for help; and there he captured a great foreign vessel. He took part in much of the fighting that went
on in those days in the Mediterranean Sea, and he sailed to Iceland and Madeira and many other places. He said
himself, "Wherever ship has sailed, there have I journeyed."
When he was about thirty years old he went to live at Lisbon, and he married a Portuguese lady, and got to
know many of the Portuguese, and heard about the discoveries they were making. And he read all the books of
travel he could find, and wrote to the wisest men who then lived, asking them what was known about Asia, and
if they thought it could be found by
 sailing across the Atlantic. Some of them thought so, and they all told him it was full of gold and silver and
diamonds and spices, so that he could fill his ships with riches. The wisest of all, Toscanelli, sent him a
map which he had made, in which he showed Asia lying just where America is on the other side of the Atlantic,
and told him to sail always to the west, for if he missed the most wonderful country, Japan, he would come to
China, or India, or some of the places marked on the map, and so would be able to direct his course. He wrote:
"I perceive your magnificent and great desire to find a way to where the spices grow. I do not wonder that
you, who have great courage, and all the Portuguese people, who have always been men eager for all great
undertakings, should be with a burning heart and feel a great desire to undertake the said voyage."
Columbus also talked with sailors, and some of them told him stories of lands they had seen far away to the
west; though, indeed, they had probably mistaken some dark ridge of cloud for land. One old man said that a
long time ago he had found
 the bodies of two men lying on the shore, where they had been carried by the waves. They were brown and
broad-faced, not like any Christian people, and must have come from an unknown country. Other seamen spoke of
strange reeds and trees, and of a carved staff which had drifted from the west across the ocean. And the more
Columbus thought, the surer he became that he was the man to go on this strange voyage, and that he would
succeed in finding the far-off land.
So, because he was one of those men who never grow careless and lazy, nor forget any great plan they have
made, he began, after many years of waiting and thinking, to look for the ship and the crew that would take
him across the seas. For he was a poor man, earning his living by drawing maps, and he could not buy a ship,
while no ordinary person would lend one for such a dangerous voyage. So it was long before he was able to
sail. Yet all this time he was as certain of his success as if his eyes already saw the land.