IN the spring of 1829, the author of this work, whom curiosity had brought into Spain, made a rambling expedition
from Seville to Granada in company with a friend, a member of the Russian Embassy at Madrid.
Many are apt to picture Spain to their imaginations as a soft southern region, decked out with the luxuriant
charms of voluptuous Italy. On the contrary, though there are exceptions in some of the maritime provinces,
yet, for the greater part, it is a stern, melancholy country, with rugged mountains, and long sweeping plains,
destitute of trees, and indescribably silent and lonesome, partaking of the savage and solitary character of
Africa. What adds to this silence and loneliness, is the absence of singing-birds, a natural consequence of
the want of groves and hedges. The vulture and the eagle are seen wheeling about the mountain-cliffs, and
soaring over the plains, and groups of shy bustards stalk about the heaths, but the myriads of smaller birds,
which animate the whole face of other countries are met with but in few provinces in Spain, and in those
chiefly among the orchards and gardens which surround the habitations of man.
In the interior provinces the traveller occasionally
trav-  erses great tracts cultivated with grain as far as the eye can reach, waving at times with verdure, at other
times naked and sunburnt, but he looks around in vain for the hand that has tilled the soil. At length he
perceives some village on a steep hill, or rugged crag, with mouldering battlements and ruined watch-tower: a
stronghold, in old times against civil war or Moorish inroad; for the custom among the peasantry of
congregating together for mutual protection is still kept up in most parts of Spain, in consequence of the
maraudings of roving freebooters.
But though a great part of Spain is deficient in the garniture of groves and forests, and the softer charms of
ornamental cultivation, yet its scenery is noble in its severity and in unison with the attributes of its
people; and I think that I better understand the proud, hardy, frugal, and abstemious Spaniard, his manly
defiance of hardships, and contempt of effeminate indulgences, since I have seen the country he inhabits.
There is something, too, in the sternly simple features of the Spanish landscape, that impresses on the soul a
feeling of sublimity. The immense plains of the Castiles and of La Mancha, extending as far as the eye can
reach, derive an interest from their very nakedness and immensity, and possess, in some degree, the solemn
grandeur of the ocean. In ranging over these boundless wastes the eye catches sight here and there of a
struggling herd of cattle attended by a lonely herdsman, motionless as a statue, with his long slender pike
tapering up like a lance into the air; or beholds a long train of mules slowly
mov-  ing along the waste like a train of camels in the desert; or a single horseman, armed with blunderbuss and
stiletto, and prowling over the plain. Thus the country, the habits; the very looks of the people, have
something of the Arabian character. The general insecurity of the country is evinced in the universal use of
weapons. The herdsman in the field, the shepherd in the plain, has his musket and his knife. The wealthy
villager rarely ventures to the market-town without his gun, and, perhaps, a servant on foot with a
blunderbuss on his shoulder; and the most petty journey is undertaken with the preparation of a war-like
The dangers of the road produce also a mode of traveling resembling, on a diminutive scale, the caravans of
the East. The carriers congregate in convoys, and set off in large and well-armed trains on appointed days;
while additional travelers swell their number and contribute to their strength. In this primitive way is the
commerce of the country carried on. The muleteer is the general medium of traffic, and the legitimate
traverser of the land, crossing the peninsula from the Pyrenees and the Asturias to the Alpuxarras, and even
to the gates of Gibraltar. He lives frugally and hardily: his saddle-bags of coarse cloth hold his scanty
stock of provisions; a leathern bottle, hanging at his saddle-bow, contains wine or water, for a supply across
barren mountains and thirsty plains; a mule-cloth spread upon the ground is his bed at night, and his
pack-saddle his pillow. His low, but clean-limbed and sinewy form betokens strength; his complexion is dark
sun-  burnt; his eye resolute, but quiet in its expression, except when kindled by sudden emotion; his demeanor is
frank, manly, and courteous, and he never passes you without a grave salutation: "God guard you!" "God be with
As these men have often their whole fortune at stake upon the burden of their mules, they have their weapons
at hand, slung to their saddles, and ready to be snatched out for desperate defence; but their united numbers
render them secure against petty bands of marauders, and the solitary robber, armed to the teeth, and mounted
on his Andalusian steed, hovers about them, like a pirate about a merchant convoy, without daring to assault.
The Spanish muleteer has an inexhaustible stock of songs and ballads, with which to beguile his incessant
wayfaring. These he chants forth with a loud voice, and long, drawling cadence, seated sideways on his mule,
who seems to listen with infinite gravity, and to keep time, with his paces, to the tune. The couplets thus
chanted are often old traditional romances about the Moors, or some legend of a saint, or some love-ditty; or,
what is still more frequent, some ballad about a bold smuggler, or hardy robber, for both are poetical heroes
among the common people of Spain.
The ancient kingdom of Granada is one of the most mountainous regions of Spain. Vast sierras, or chains of
mountains, destitute of shrub or tree, and mottled with variegated marbles and granites, elevate their
sunburnt summits against a deep-blue sky; yet in their rugged bosoms lie engulfed verdant and fertile valleys,
where the desert and the garden strive for mastery, and the very rock is, as it were, compelled to yield the
fig, the orange,
 and the citron, and to blossom with the myrtle and the rose.
In the wild passes of these mountains the sight of walled towns and villages, built like eagles' nests among
the cliffs, and surrounded by Moorish battlements, or of ruined watch-towers perched on lofty peaks, carries
the mind back to the chivalric days of Christian and Moslem warfare,
and to the romantic struggle for the conquest of Granada. In traversing these lofty sierras the traveller is
often obliged to alight, and lead his horse up and down; the steep and jagged ascents and descents, resembling
the broken steps of a staircase. Sometimes the road winds along dizzy precipices, without parapet to guard him
from the gulfs below, and then will plunge down steep and dark and dangerous declivities. Sometimes it
struggles through rigged ravines, worn by winter torrents, the obscure path of the smuggler; while, ever and
anon, the ominous cross, the monument of robbery and murder, erected on a mound of stones at some lonely part
of the road, admonishes the traveller that he is among the haunts of banditti, perhaps at that very moment
under the eye of some lurking outlaw. Sometimes, in winding through the narrow valleys, he is startled by a
hoarse bellowing, and beholds above him on some green fold of the mountain a herd of fierce Andalusian bulls,
destined for the combat of the arena.
I have felt, if I may so express it, an agreeable horror in thus contemplating, near at hand, these terrific
animals, clothed with tremendous strength, and ranging their native pastures in untamed wildness, strangers
 to the face of man: they know no one but the solitary herdsman who attends upon them, and even he at times
dares not venture to approach them. The low bellowing of these bulls, and their menacing aspect as they look
down from their rocky height, give additional wildness to the savage scenery.
As our proposed route to Granada lay through mountainous regions, where the roads are little better than
mule-paths, and said to be frequently beset by robbers, we took due travelling precautions. Forwarding the
most valuable part of our luggage a day or two in advance by the carriers, we retained merely clothing and
necessaries for the journey and money for the expenses of the road; with a little surplus of hard dollars by
way of robber purse, to satisfy the gentlemen of the road should we be assailed. Unlucky is the too wary
traveller who, having grudged this precaution, falls into their clutches empty-handed; they are apt to give
him a sound rib-roasting for cheating them out of their dues.
A couple of stout steeds were provided for our own mounting, and a third for our scanty luggage and the
conveyance of a sturdy Biscayan lad, about twenty years of age, who was to be our guide, our groom, our valet,
and at all times our guard. For the latter office he was provided with a formidable gun, with which he
promised to defend us against solitary footpads. He made much vain-glorious boast about his weapon at the
outset of the journey; though, to the discredit of his generalship, it was suffered to hang unloaded behind
his saddle. He was a faithful,
 cheery, kind-hearted creature, as full of saws and proverbs as that miracle of squires, the renowned Sancho
himself, whose name, by the by, we bestowed upon him, and, like a true Spaniard, though treated by us with
companionable familiarity, he never for a moment, in his utmost hilarity, overstepped the bounds of respectful
Such were our minor preparations for the journey, but above all we laid in an ample-stock of good-humor, and a
genuine disposition to be pleased; determining to take things as we found them, rough or smooth, and mingle
with all classes and conditions in a kind of vagabond companionship. It is the true way to travel in Spain.
With such disposition and determination, what a country is it for a traveller, where the most miserable inn is
as full of adventure as an enchanted castle, and every meal is in itself an achievement! Let others repine at
the lack of turnpike roads and sumptuous hotels, and all the elaborate comforts of a country cultivated and
civilized into tameness and commonplace; but give me the rude mountain scramble; the roving, hap-hazard
wayfaring; the half wild, yet frank and hospitable manners, which impart such a true game-flavor to dear old
Shortly after sunset on our first day's journey we arrived at Arahal, a little town among the hills. We found
it in a bustle with a party of mountain soldiers, who were patrolling the country to ferret out robbers. The
appearance of foreigners like ourselves was an unusual circumstance in an interior country town; and little
Spanish towns of the kind are easily put in a state of gossip and
 wonderment by such an occurrence. Mine host, with two or three old wiseacre comrades in brown cloaks, studied
our passports in a corner of the inn, while a constable took notes by the dim light of a lamp. The passports
were in foreign, languages and perplexed them, but our Squire Sancho assisted them in their studies, and
magnified our importance with the grandiloquence of a Spaniard. In the meantime the magnificent distribution
of a few cigars had won the hearts of all around us; in a little while the whole community seemed put in
agitation to make us welcome. The mayor himself waited upon us, and a great rush-bottomed arm-chair was
ostentatiously bolstered into our room by our landlady, for the accommodation of that important personage. The
commander of the patrol took supper with us: a lively, talking, laughing Andaluz, who had made a campaign in
South America, and recounted his exploits in love and war with much pomp of phrase, vehemence of
gesticulation, and mysterious rolling of the eye. He told us that he had a list of all the robbers in the
country, and meant to ferret out every mother's son of them; he offered us at the same time some of his
soldiers as an escort. "One is enough to protect you, seņors; the robbers know me, and know my men; the sight
of one is enough to spread terror through a whole sierra." We thanked him for his offer, but assured him, in
his own strain, that with the protection of our redoubtable squire, Sancho, we were not afraid of all the
rascals of Andalusia.
While we were supping with our braggart friend, we
 heard the notes of a guitar, and the click of castanets, and presently a chorus of voices singing a popular
air. In fact, mine host had gathered together the amateur singers and musicians, and the rustic belles of the
neighborhood, and, on going forth, the court-yard of the inn presented a scene of true Spanish festivity. We
took our seats with mine host and hostess and the commander of the patrol, under an archway opening into the
court; the guitar passed from hand to hand, but a jovial shoe-maker was the Orpheus of the place. He was a
pleasant-looking fellow, with huge black whiskers; his sleeves were rolled up to his elbows. He touched the
guitar with masterly skill, and afterwards danced a fandango with a buxom Andalusian damsel, to the great
delight of the spectators. But none of the females present could compare with mine host's pretty daughter,
Pepita, who had slipped away and made her toilette for the occasion, and had covered her head with roses; and
who distinguished herself in a dance with a handsome young dragoon. We ordered our host to let wine and
refreshments circulate freely among the company, yet, though there was a motley
 assembly of soldiers, muleteers, and villagers, no one exceeded the bounds of sober enjoyment. The scene was a
study for a painter: the picturesque group of dancers, the troopers in their half military dresses, the
peasantry wrapped in their brown cloaks; nor must I omit to mention the old meagre constable, in short black
cloak, who took no notice of anything going on, but sat in a corner diligently writing by the dim light of a
huge copper lamp, that might have figured in the days of Don Quixote.
The following morning was bright and balmy, as a May morning ought to be, according to the poets. Leaving
Arahal at seven o'clock, with all the people of the inn at the door to cheer us off, we pursued our way
through a fertile country, covered with grain and beautifully verdant; but which in summer, when the harvest
is over and the fields parched and brown, must be monotonous and lonely; for, as in our ride of yesterday,
there were neither houses nor people to be seen. The latter all congregate in villages and strongholds among
the hills, as if these fertile plains were still subject to the ravages of the Moor.
At noon we came to where there was a group of trees, beside a brook in a rich meadow. Here we alighted to make
our mid-day meal. Knowing the scanty larders of Spanish inns, and the houseless tracts we might have to
traverse, we had taken care to have the saddle-bags of our squire well stocked with cold provisions, and his
leathern bottle, which might hold a gallon, filled to the neck with choice wine.
Our repast being finished, we spread our cloaks on the greensward under the tree, and took a luxurious siesta,
 in the Spanish fashion. The clouding up of the weather, however, warned us to depart, and a harsh wind sprang
up from the southeast. Towards five o'clock we arrived at Osuna, a town of fifteen thousand inhabitants,
situated on the side of a hill, with a church and a ruined castle. The inn was outside of the walls; it had a
cheerless look. The evening being cold, the inhabitants were crowded round a pan of coals in a chimney-corner;
and the hostess was a dry old woman, who looked like a mummy. Every one eyed us askance as we entered, as
Spaniards are apt to regard strangers; a cheery, respectful salutation on our part, touching our sombreros,
set Spanish pride at ease; and when we took our seats among them, lit our cigars, and passed the cigar-box
round among them, our victory was complete. I have never known a Spaniard, whatever his rank or condition, who
would suffer himself to be outdone in courtesy; and to the common Spaniard the present of a cigar is
irresistible. Care, however, must be taken never to offer him a present with an air of superiority and
condescension; he is too much of a gentleman to receive favors at the cost of his dignity.
Leaving Osuna at an early hour the next morning, we entered the sierra or range of mountains. The road wound
through picturesque scenery, but lonely; and a cross here and there by the roadside, the sign of a murder,
showed that we were now coming among the "robber haunts." This wild and intricate country, with its silent
plains and valleys intersected by mountains, has ever been famous for banditti. About nightfall we arrived at
the gates of Antiquera, that old city of warlike reputation, lying, in the lap of the great sierra which runs
 Everything in this venerable city has a decidedly Spanish stamp. It lies too much out of the frequented track
of foreign travel to have its old usages trampled out. Here I observed old men still wearing the ancient
hunting-cap, once common throughout Spain; while the young men wore the little round-crowned hat, with brim
turned up all round, like a cup turned down in its saucer; while the brim was set off with little black tufts
like cockades. The women, too, were all in mantillas and basquinas. As Antiquera, though a considerable city,
is, as I observed, somewhat out of the track of travel, I had anticipated bad quarters and poor fare at the
inn. I was agreeably disappointed, therefore, by a supper-table amply supplied, and what was still more
acceptable, good clean rooms and comfortable beds.
Early in the morning I strolled to the ruins of the old Moorish castle, which itself had been reared on the
ruins of a Roman fortress. Here, taking my seat on the remains of a crumbling tower, I enjoyed a grand and
varied landscape, beautiful in itself, and full of storied and romantic associations; for I was now in the
very heart of the country famous for the chivalrous contests between Moor and Christian.
On returning to the inn I found our man Sancho in high gossip with the landlord and two or three of his
hangers-on. He had just been telling some marvellous story about Seville, which mine host seemed piqued to
match with one equally marvellous about Antiquera. There was once a
 fountain, he said, in one of the public squares called The fountain of the bull, because the water
gushed from the mouth of a bull's head, carved of stone. Underneath the head was inscribed: In front of the
bull there is treasure. Many digged in front of the fountain, but lost their labor and found no money. At
last one knowing fellow construed the motto a different way. It is in the forehead of the bull that the
treasure is to be found, said he to himself, and I am the man to find it. Accordingly he came, late at night,
with a mallet, and knocked the head to pieces; and what do you think he found?
"Plenty of gold and diamonds!" cried Sancho, eagerly. "He found nothing," rejoined mine host, dryly, and he
ruined the fountain."
Here a great laugh was set up by the landlord's hangers-on; who considered Sancho completely taken in by what
I presume was one of mine host's standing jokes.
Leaving Antiquera at eight o'clock, we had a delightful ride along the little river, and by gardens and
orchards fragrant with the odors of spring and vocal with the nightingale.
At noon we halted in sight of Archidona, in a pleasant little meadow among hills covered with olive-trees, and
Sancho was told to produce his saddle-bags. He had been unusually silent this morning ever since the laugh
raised at his expense, but now his countenance brightened, and he produced his saddle-bags with an air of
triumph. They contained the contributions of four days' journeying, but had been signally enriched by the
foraging of the previous evening in the plenteous inn at Antiquera; and this seemed to furnish him with a
set-off to the banter of mine host.
In front of the bull there is treasure
would he exclaim, with a chuckling laugh, as he drew forth the heterogeneous contents one by one, in a series
which seemed to have no end. First came forth a shoulder of roasted kid, very little the worse for wear; then
an entire partridge; then a great morsel of salted codfish wrapped in paper; then the residue of a ham; then
the half of a pullet, together with several rolls of bread, and a rabble rout of oranges, figs, raisins, and
walnuts. His leathern bottle also had been recruited with some excellent wine of Malaga. At every fresh
apparition from his larder, he would enjoy our ludicrous surprise, throwing himself back on the grass,
shouting with laughter, and exclaiming, "Front of the bull!—front of the bull! Ah, seņors, they thought
Sancho a simpleton at Antiquera; but Sancho knew where to find the treasure."
While we were diverting ourselves with his simple drollery, a solitary beggar approached, who had almost the
look of a pilgrim. He had a venerable gray beard, and was evidently very old, supporting himself on a staff,
yet age had not bowed him down; he was tall and erect, and had the wreck of a fine form. He wore a round
Andalusian hat, a sheep-skin jacket, and leathern breeches, gaiters, and sandals. His dress, though old and
patched, was decent, his demeanor manly, and he addressed us with the grave courtesy that is to be remarked in
the lowest Spaniard. We were in a favorable mood for such a visitor; and in a freak of capricious charity gave
him some silver, a loaf of fine wheaten bread, and a goblet of our choice wine of Malaga. He received them
thankfully, but without any
 groveling tribute of gratitude. Tasting the wine, he held it up to the light, with a slight beam of surprise
in his eye; then quaffing it off at a draught, "It is many years," said he, "since I have tasted such wine. It
is a cordial to an old man's heart." Then, looking at the beautiful wheaten loaf, "blessed be such bread!" So
saying, he put it in his wallet. We urged him to eat it on the spot. "No, seņors," replied he, "the wine I had
either to drink or leave; but the bread I may take home to share with my family."
Our man Sancho sought our eye, and reading permission there, gave the old man some of the ample fragments of
our repast, on condition, however, that he should sit down and make a meal.
He accordingly took his seat at some little distance from us, and began to eat slowly, and with a sobriety and
decorum that would have become a hidalgo. There was altogether a measured manner and a quiet self-possession
about the old man, that made me think that he had seen better days: his language, too, though simple, had
occasionally something picturesque and almost poetical in the phraseology. I set him down for some broken-down
noble-man. I was mistaken; it was nothing but the innate courtesy of a Spaniard, and the poetical turn of
thought and language often to be found in the lowest classes of this clear-witted people. For fifty years, he
told us, he had been a shepherd, but now he was out of employ and destitute. "When I was a young man," said
he, "nothing could harm or trouble me; I was always well, always gay; but now I am seventy-nine years of age,
and a beggar, and my heart begins to fail me."
 Still he was not a regular mendicant: it was not until recently that want had driven him to this degradation;
and he gave a touching picture of the struggle between hunger and pride, when abject destitution first came
upon him. He was returning from Malaga without money; he had not tasted food for some time, and was crossing
one of the great plains of Spain, where there were but few habitations. When almost dead with hunger, he
applied at the door of a country inn. "Excuse us, brother, for God's sake!" was the reply—the usual mode
in Spain of refusing a beggar. "I turned away," said he, "with shame greater than my hunger, for my heart was
yet too proud. I came to a river with high banks, and deep, rapid current, and felt tempted to throw myself
in: 'What should such an old, worthless, wretched man as I live for?' But when I was on the brink of the
current, I turned away. I traveled on until I saw a country-seat at a little distance from the road, and
entered the outer gate of the court-yard. The door was shut, but there were two young ladies at a window. I
approached and begged;—'Excuse us, brother, for God's sake!'—and the window was closed. I crept
out of the court-yard, but hunger overcame me, and my heart gave way: I thought my hour at hand, so I laid
myself down at the gate, and covered my head to die. In a little while afterwards the master of the house came
home: seeing me lying at his gate, he uncovered my head, had pity on my gray hairs, took me into his house,
and gave me food."
The old man was on his way to his native place, Archidona, which was in full view on the steep and rugged
mountain. He pointed to the ruins of its castle. As his heart warmed with wine he went on to tell us a story of
 the buried treasure left under the castle by the Moorish king. His own house was next to the foundation of the
castle. The curate and notary dreamed three times of the treasure, and went to work at the place pointed out
in their dreams. His own son-in-law heard the sound of their pickaxes and spades at night. What they found
nobody knows; they became suddenly rich, but kept their own secret. Thus the old man had once been next door to
fortune, but was doomed never to get under the same roof.
I have remarked that the stories of treasure buried by the Moors, so popular throughout Spain, are most
current among the poorest people. Kind nature consoles with shadows for the lack of substantials. The thirsty
man dreams of fountains and running streams; the hungry man of banquets; and the poor man of heaps of hidden
gold: nothing certainly is more opulent than the imagination of a beggar.
Our afternoon's ride took us through a steep and rugged defile of the mountains, called the Pass of the King;
being one of the great passes into the territories of Granada, and the one by which King Ferdinand
conducted his army. Towards sunset the road, winding round a hill, brought us in sight of the famous little
frontier city of Loxa, which repulsed Ferdinand from its walls. It was the stronghold of that fiery veteran,
old Ali Atar, father-in-law of Boabdil; and here it was that the latter collected his troops, and sallied
forth on that disastrous foray which ended in the death of the old governor of the castle, and his own
cap-  tivity. From its commanding position at the gate, as it were, of this mountain-pass, Loxa has not unaptly been
termed the key of Granada. It is wildly picturesque; built along the face of a rugged mountain. The ruins of a
Moorish citadel crown a rocky mound which rises out of the centre of the town. The river Xenil washes its
base, winding among rocks and groves, and gardens, and meadows, and crossed by a Moorish bridge. Above the
city all is savage and sterile, below is the richest vegetation and the freshest verdure. A similar contrast
is presented by the river: above the bridge it is placid and grassy, reflecting groves and gardens; below it
is rapid, noisy, and tumultuous. The Sierra Nevada, the royal mountains of Granada, crowned with perpetual
snow, form the distant boundary to this varied landscape, one of the most characteristic of romantic Spain.
Alighting at the entrance to the city, we gave our horses to Sancho to lead them to the inn, while we strolled
about to enjoy the singular beauty of the environs. As we crossed the bridge to a fine public walk, the bells
tolled the hour of orison. At the sound the wayfarers, whether on business or pleasure, paused, took off their
hats, crossed themselves, and repeated their evening prayer: a pious custom still rigidly observed in retired
parts of Spain. Altogether it was a solemn and beautiful evening scene, and we wandered on as the evening
gradually closed, and the new moon began to glitter between the high elms of the public walk. We were roused
from this quiet state of enjoyment by the voice of our trusty squire hailing us from a distance.
The inn to which he conducted us was called the Crown,
 and we found it quite in keeping with the character of the place, the inhabitants of which seem still to
retain the bold, fiery spirit of the olden time. The hostess was a young and handsome Andalusian widow, whose
trim petticoat of black silk, fringed with bugles, set off the play of a graceful form and round pliant limbs.
Her step was firm and elastic; her dark eye was full of fire; and the coquetry of her air, and varied
ornaments of her person, showed that she was accustomed to be admired.
She was well matched by her brother, nearly about her own age. He was tall, vigorous, and well-formed, with a
clear olive complexion, a dark beaming eye, and curling chestnut whiskers that met under his chin. He was
gallantly dressed in a short green velvet jacket, fitted to his shape, profusely decorated with silver
buttons, with a white handkerchief in each pocket. He had breeches of the same, with rows of buttons from the
hips to the knees; a pink silk handkerchief round his neck, gathered through a ring, on the bosom of a neatly
plaited shirt; a sash round the waist to match; high gaiters of the finest russet-leather, elegantly worked,
and open at the calf to show his stocking; and russet shoes, setting off a well-shaped foot.
As he was standing at the door, a horseman rode up and entered into a low and earnest conversation with him.
He was dressed in a similar style, and almost with equal finery; a man about thirty, square-built, with strong
Roman features, handsome, though slightly pitted with small-pox; with a free, bold, and somewhat daring air.
His powerful black horse was decorated with, tassels and fanciful trappings, and a couple of broad-mouthed
blunderbusses hung behind the saddle. He had the air of one of those smugglers I have seen in the mountains of
 and evidently had a good understanding with the brother of mine hostess; nay, if I mistake not, he was a
favored admirer of the widow. In fact, the whole inn and its inmates had something of a suspicious aspect, and
a blunderbuss stood in a corner beside the guitar. The horseman I have mentioned passed his evening in the
inn, and sang several bold mountain romances with great spirit. As we were at supper, two poor Asturians put
in, in distress, begging food and a night's lodging. They had been waylaid by robbers as they came from a fair
among the mountains, robbed of a horse which carried all their stock in trade, stripped of their money, and
most of their apparel, beaten for having offered resistance, and left almost naked on the road. My companion,
with a prompt generosity natural to him, ordered them a supper and a bed, and gave them a sum of money to help
them forward towards their home.
As the evening advanced, the dramatis personæ thickened. A large man, about sixty years of age,
of powerful frame, came strolling in, to gossip with mine hostess. He was dressed in the ordinary Andalusian
costume, but had a huge sabre tucked under his arm; wore large moustaches, and had something of a lofty
swaggering air. Every one seemed to regard him with great deference.
Our man Sancho whispered to us that he was Don Ventura Rodriguez, the hero and champion of Loxa, famous for
his prowess and the strength of his arm. In the time of the French invasion he surprised six troopers who were
asleep; he first secured their horses, then attacked them with his sabre, killed some, and took the
 rest prisoners. For this exploit the king allows him the fifth of a Spanish dollar per day, and has dignified
him with the title of Don.
I sat until a late hour listening to the varied themes of this motley group, who mingled together with the
unreserve of a Spanish inn. We had smuggler songs, stories of robbers, guerilla exploits, and Moorish legends.
The last were from our handsome landlady, who gave a poetical account of the Infiernos, or infernal regions of
Loxa,—dark caverns, in which subterranean streams and waterfalls make a mysterious sound. The common
people say that there are money-coiners shut up there from the time of the Moors; and that the Moorish kings
kept their treasures in those caverns.
I retired to bed with my imagination excited by all that I had seen and heard in this old warrior city, but
slept soundly until morning.
On leaving Loxa we were joined by a horseman, well mounted and well armed, and followed on foot by a
musketeer. He saluted us courteously, and soon let us into his quality. He was the chief of the customs, or
rather, I should suppose, chief of an armed company whose business it is to patrol the roads and look out for
smugglers. In the course of our morning's ride I drew from him some particulars concerning the smugglers, who
have risen to be a kind of mongrel chivalry in Spain. They come into Andalusia, he said, from various parts,
but, especially from La Mancha; sometimes to receive goods, to be smuggled on an appointed night across the
line at the strand of Gibraltar; sometimes to meet a vessel, which
 is to hover on a given night off a certain part of the coast. They keep together and travel in the night. In
the day-time they lie quiet in gullies of the mountains, or lonely farm-houses; where they are generally well
received, as they make the family liberal presents of their smuggled wares. Indeed, much of the finery and
trinkets worn by the wives and daughters of the mountain hamlets and farm-houses are presents from the gay and
Arrived at the part of the coast where a vessel is to meet them, they look out at night from some rocky point
or headland. If they descry a sail near the shore they make a concerted signal; sometimes it consists in
suddenly displaying a lantern three times from beneath the folds of the cloak. If the signal is answered, they
descend to the shore and prepare for quick work. The vessel runs close in; all her boats are busy landing the
smuggled goods, made up into snug packages for transportation on horseback. These are hastily thrown on the
beach, as hastily gathered up and packed on the horses, and then their riders clatter off to the mountains.
They travel by the roughest, wildest, and most solitary roads, where it is almost fruitless to pursue them.
The custom-house guards do not attempt it: they take a different course. When they hear of one of these bands
returning full freighted through the mountains, they go out in force, sometimes twelve infantry and eight
horsemen, and take their station where the mountain defile opens into the plain. The infantry, who lie in
ambush some distance within the defile, suffer the band to pass, then rise and fire upon them. The smugglers
dash forward, but are met in front by the horsemen. A wild skirmish ensues.
 The smugglers, if hard pressed, become desperate. Some dismount, use their horses as breastworks, and fire
over their backs; others cut the cords, let the packs fall off to delay the enemy, and endeavor to escape with
their steeds. Some get off in this way with the loss of their packages; some are taken, horses, packages, and
all; others abandon everything, and make their escape by scrambling up the mountains. "And then," cried
Sancho, who had been listening with a greedy ear, "and then they become legitimate robbers."
I could not help laughing at Sancho's idea of a legitimate calling of the kind; but the chief of customs told
me it was really the case that the smugglers, when thus reduced to extremity, thought they had a kind of right
to take the road, and lay travellers under contribution, until they had collected funds enough to mount and
equip themselves in their former style.
Towards noon our wayfaring companion took leave of us and turned up a steep defile, and shortly afterwards we
emerged from the mountains, and entered upon the far-famed Vega of Granada.
Our last mid-day's repast was taken under a grove of olive-trees on the border of a rivulet. The day was
without a cloud. The heat of the sun was tempered by cool breezes from the mountains. Before us extended the
glorious Vega. In the distance was romantic Granada surmounted by the ruddy towers of the Alhambra, while far
above it the snowy summits of the Sierra Nevada shone like silver.
 Our repast finished, we spread our cloaks and took our last nap in the open air, lulled by the humming of bees
among the flowers and the notes of doves among the olive-trees. When the sultry hours were passed we resumed
our journey, and arrived about sunset at the gates of Granada.
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