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PANORAMA FROM THE TOWER OF COMARES
 IT is a serene and beautiful morning: the sun has not gained sufficient power to destroy the freshness of the
night. What a morning to mount to the summit of the Tower of Comares, and take a bird's-eye view of Granada
and its environs!
Come then, worthy reader and comrade, follow my steps into this vestibule, ornamented with rich tracery, which
opens into the Hall of Ambassadors. We will not enter the hall, however, but turn to this small door opening
into the wall. Have a care! here are steep winding steps and but scanty light; yet up this narrow, obscure,
and spiral staircase, the proud monarchs of Granada and their queens have often ascended to the battlements to
watch the approach of invading armies, or gaze with anxious hearts on the battles in the Vega.
At length we have reached the roof, and may take breath for a moment, while we cast a general eye over the
splendid panorama of city and country; of rocky mountain, verdant valley, and fertile plain; of castle,
cathedral, Moorish towers, and Gothic domes, crumbling ruins, and blooming groves. Let us approach the
 cast our eyes immediately below. See, on this side we have the whole plain of the Alhambra laid open to us,
and can look down into its courts and gardens. At the foot of the tower is the Court of the Alberca, with its
great tank or fish-pool, bordered with flowers; and yonder is the Court of Lions, with its famous fountain,
and its light Moorish arcades; and in the centre of the pile is the little garden of Lindaraxa, buried in the
heart of the building, with its roses and citrons and shrubbery of emerald green.
That belt of battlements, studded with square towers, straggling round the whole brow of the hill, is the
outer boundary of the fortress. Some of the towers, you may perceive, are in ruins, and their massive
fragments buried among vines, fig-trees, and aloes.
Let us look on this northern side of the tower. It is a giddy height; the very foundations of the tower rise
above the groves of the steep hillside. And see! a long fissure in the massive walls shows that the tower has
been rent by some of the earthquakes which from time to time have thrown Granada into consternation; and
which, sooner or later, must reduce this crumbling pile to a mere mass of ruin. The deep narrow glen below us,
which gradually widens as it opens from the mountains, is the valley of the Darro; you see the little river
winding its way under embowered terraces, and among orchards and flower-gardens. It is a stream famous in old
times for yielding gold, and its sands are still sifted occasionally, in search of the precious ore. Some of
those white pavilions, which here and there gleam from among groves and vine-yards, were rustic retreats of
the Moors, to enjoy the refreshment of their gardens. Well have they been
com-  pared by one of their poets to so many pearls set in a bed of emeralds.
The airy palace, with its tall white towers and long arcades, which breasts yon mountain, among pompous groves
and hanging gardens, is the Generalife, a summer palace of the Moorish kings, to which they resorted during
the sultry months to enjoy a still more breezy region than that of the Alhambra. The naked summit of the
height above it, where you behold some shapeless ruins, is the Seat of the Moor, so called from having been a
retreat of the unfortunate Boabdil during the time of an insurrection, where he seated himself, and looked
down mournfully upon his rebellious city.
A murmuring sound of water now and then rises from the valley. It is from the aqueduct of yon Moorish mill,
nearly at the foot of the hill. The avenue of trees beyond is the Alameda, along the bank of the Darro; a
favorite resort in evenings, and a rendezvous of lovers in the summer nights, when the guitar may be heard at
a late hour from the benches along its walks. At present you see none but a few loitering monks there, and a
group of water-carriers. The latter are burdened with water-jars of ancient Oriental construction, such as
were used by the Moors. They have been filled at the cold and limpid spring called the fountain of Avellanos.
Yon mountain path leads to the fountain, a favorite resort of Moslems as well as Christians; for this is said
to be the "Fountain of Tears," celebrated in the histories and romances of the Moors.
You start! 'tis nothing but a hawk that we have frightened from his nest. This old tower is a complete
breeding-place for vagrant birds; the swallow and martlet abound
 in every chink and cranny, and circle about it the whole day long; while at night, when all other birds have
gone to rest, the moping owl comes out of its lurking-place, and utters its boding cry from the battlements.
See how the hawk we have dislodged sweeps away below us, skimming over the tops of the trees, and sailing up
to the ruins above the Generalife!
I see you raise your eyes to the snowy summit of yon pile of mountains, shining like a white summer cloud in
the blue sky. It is the Sierra Nevada, the pride and delight of Granada; the source of her cooling breezes and
perpetual verdure; of her gushing fountains and perennial streams. It is this glorious pile of mountains which
gives to Granada that combination of delights so rare in a southern city,—the fresh vegetation and
temperate airs of a northern climate, with the vivifying ardor of a tropical sun, and the cloudless azure of a
southern sky. It is this aerial treasury of snow, which, melting in proportion to the increase of the summer
heat, sends down rivulets and streams through every glen and gorge of the Alpuxarras, diffusing emerald
verdure and fertility throughout a chain of happy and sequestered valleys.
Those mountains may be well called the glory of Granada. They dominate the whole extent of Andalusia, and may
be seen from its most distant parts. The muleteer hails them, as he views their frosty peaks from the sultry
level of the plain; and the Spanish mariner on the deck of his bark, far, far off on the bosom of the blue
Mediterranean, watches them with a pensive eye, thinks of delightful Granada, and chants, in low voice, some
old romance about the Moors.
See to the south at the foot of those mountains a line
 of arid hills, down which a long train of mules is slowly moving. Here was the closing scene of Moslem
domination. From the summit of one of those hills the unfortunate Boabdil cast back his last look upon
Granada, and gave vent to the agony of his soul. It is the spot famous in song and story, "The last sigh of
Further this way these arid hills slope down into the luxurious Vega, from which he had just emerged: a
blooming wilderness of grove and garden, and teeming orchard, with the Xenil winding through it in silver
links, and feeding innumerable rills; which, conducted through ancient Moorish channels, maintain the
landscape in perpetual verdure. Here were the beloved bowers and gardens, and rural pavilions, for which the
unfortunate Moors fought with such desperate valor. The very hovels and rude granges, now inhabited by boors,
show, by the remains of arabesques and other tasteful decorations, that they were elegant residences in the
days of the Moslems. Behold, in the very centre of this eventful plain, a place which in a manner links the
history of the Old World with that of the New. Yon line of walls and towers gleaming in the morning sun, is
the city of Santa Fe, built by the Catholic sovereigns during the siege of Granada, after a conflagration had
destroyed their camp. It was to these walls Columbus was called back by the heroic queen, and within them the
treaty was concluded which led to the discovery of the Western World. Behind yon promontory to the west is the
bridge of Pinos, renowned for many a bloody fight between Moors and Christians. At this bridge the messenger
overtook Columbus when, despairing of success
 with the Spanish sovereigns, he was departing to carry his project of discovery to the court of France.
Above the bridge a range of mountains bounds the Vega to the west,—the ancient barrier between Granada
and the Christian territories. Among their heights you may still discern warrior towns; their gray walls and
battlements seeming of a piece with the rocks on which they are built. Here and there a solitary watchtower,
perched on a mountain peak, looks down as it were from the sky into the valley on either side. How often have
these towers given notice, by fire at night or smoke by day, of an approaching foe! It was down a cragged
defile of these mountains, called the Pass of Lope, that the Christian armies descended into the Vega. Round
the base of yon gray and naked mountain (the mountain of Elvira), stretching its bold rocky promontory into
the bosom of the plain, the invading squadrons would come bursting into view, with flaunting banners and
clangor of drum and trumpet.
Five hundred years have elapsed since Ismael ben Ferrag, a Moorish king of Granada, beheld from this very
tower an invasion of the kind, and an insulting ravage of the Vega; on which occasion he displayed an instance
of chivalrous magnanimity, often witnessed in the Moslem princes; "whose history," says an Arabian writer,
"abounds in generous actions and noble deeds that will last through all succeeding ages, and live forever in
the memory of man."—But let us sit down on this parapet, and I will relate the anecdote.
It was in the year 1319, that Ismael ben Ferrag beheld from this tower a Christian camp whitening the skirts
of yon mountain of Elvira. The royal princes, Don Juan and
 Don Pedro, regents of Castile during the minority of Alphonso XI., had already laid waste the country from
Alcaudete to Alcalá la Real, capturing the castle of Illora, and setting fire to its suburbs, and they now
carried their insulting ravages to the very gates of Granada, defying the king to sally forth and give them
Ismael, though a young and intrepid prince, hesitated to accept the challenge. He had not sufficient force at
hand, and awaited the arrival of troops summoned from the neighboring towns. The Christian princes, mistaking
his motives, gave up all hope of drawing him forth, and having glutted themselves with ravage, struck their
tents and began their homeward march. Don Pedro led the van, and Don Juan brought up the rear, but their march
was confused and irregular, the army, being greatly encumbered by the spoils and captives they had taken.
By this time King Ismael had received his expected resources, and putting them under the command of Osmyn, one
of the bravest of his generals, sent them forth in hot pursuit of the enemy. The Christians were overtaken in
the defiles of the mountains. A panic seized them; they were completely routed, and driven with great
slaughter across the borders. Both of the princes lost their lives. The body of Don Pedro was carried off by
his soldiers, but that of Don Juan was lost in the darkness of the night. His son wrote to the Moorish king,
entreating that the body of his father might be sought and honorably treated. Ismael forgot in a moment that
Don Juan was an enemy, who had carried ravage and insult to the very gate of his
 capital; he only thought of him as a gallant cavalier and a royal prince. By his command diligent search was
made for the body. It was found in a ravine and brought to Granada. There Ismael caused it to be laid out in
state on a lofty bier, surrounded by torches and tapers, in one of these halls of the Alhambra. Osmyn and
other of the noblest cavaliers were appointed as a guard of honor, and the Christian captives were assembled
to pray around it.
In the meantime, Ismael wrote to the son of Prince Juan to send a convoy for the body, assuring him it should
be faithfully delivered up. In due time, a band of Christian cavaliers arrived for the purpose. They were
honorably received and entertained by Ismael, and, on their departure with the body, the guard of honor of
Moslem cavaliers escorted the funeral train to the frontier.