THE PERFECT ARTIST, THE PERFECT MAN.
 We are about to study Raphael, the most generally
praised, the most beautiful, and certainly the most loved
of all the painters of the world. When all these
delightful things can be truthfully said of one man,
surely we may look forward with pleasure to a detailed
study of his life and works.
Often in examining the lives of great men we are
compelled to pass over some events which, to say the
least, are not creditable. Of Raphael this was not true.
He was gifted with all admirable qualities, and so
many-sided was his genius that, while we think of him
first as a painter, we must not forget that he also carved
statues, wrote poems, played musical instruments, and
planned great buildings.
So much was he endeared to his pupils that, after he
grew to be famous, he never went on the streets unless
 he was followed by an admiring throng of these students,
ever ready to do his bidding or to defend his art from
any possible attack by malicious critics. He lived at a
time when artists were fiercely jealous of each other,
and yet wherever he went harmony, like a good angel,
walked unseen beside him, making whatever assembly
he entered the abode of peace and good-will. It is
a beautiful thing that such a strong, lovable man should
have had for his name that of the chief of the archangels,
Raphael, a name beautiful of sound and ever
suggestive of beauty and loveliness.
There seemed to have been special preparation for the
birth of this unique character. Not only were his
parents of the ideal sort, loving the best things of life
and thinking ever of how best to rear the little son that
God had given them, but the very country into which he
was born was fitted to still further develop his natural
tenderness and sweetness of disposition.
Webmo, the birthplace of Raphael, is a secluded
mountain town on a cliff on the east slope of the
Apennines directly east of Florence. It is in the
division known as Umbria, a section noted for its
gently broken landscape, such as in later years the
artist loved to paint as background for his most
beautiful Madonnas. Here the people were shut off from
much of the excitement known to commercial towns.
 They were slower to take up new things than the people
in the coast cities where men live by the exchange of
goods and, incidentally, of customs. The inhabitants
led simple, religious lives. We must remember, too,
that hardly fifty miles away was the village of Assisi,
where Saint Francis, the purest of men, had lived
and labored and where, after his death, a double church
had been built to his memory.
To this day there is a spirit of reverence that inspires
the visitor to this region. No wonder that, in Raphael's
time when this spirit was fresh and strong, it gave a
character of piety and sweetness to the works of all
the painters of Umbria. From these two causes, the
secluded position of the region and the influence of
Saint Francis, arose what is called the Umbrian school
of painting. All painters belonging to this school made
pictures very beautiful and full of fine religious feeling.
One April morning in 1483, to the house of Giovanni
Santi, the painter, and his wife Magia, a dear little boy
came, as millions of boys and girls have since come,
to cheer and to bless. The father and mother were
very proud of their little son, and feeling perhaps that
a more than ordinary child had been given them, they
gave him the name of Raphael, as one of good omen.
If we were to visit, in Urbino, the house where
Raphael was born, we would be shown a faded fresco of
 a Madonna and Child painted by Giovanni and said to
be Magia and the child Raphael.
From the earliest years the child was carefully tended.
When he was only eight, the fond mother died and left
the father to care for his boy alone. In due time a
step-mother was brought home. She was a kind woman
and loved and cared for the beautiful lad as if he were
really her own child. Later when the father died,
leaving the boy Raphael and his little half-sister, no
one could have been more solicitous for the boy's rights
than his step-mother. She and his uncle together
managed his affairs most wisely.
We have no record that, like Titian, the boy Raphael
used the juice of flowers with which to paint pictures of
his childish fancies, but we do know that very early he
became greatly interested in his father's studio and
went in regularly to assist. Now, it must be
remembered that, at this time, when a boy, wishing to learn to
paint, went to the studio of a master he did not at once
begin to use colors, brushes, and canvas. Instead, he
usually served a long apprenticeship, sweeping out the
studio, cleaning the brushes, grinding colors, and performing
other common duties. Raphael's assistance to his
father must have been largely of this humble sort. We
can imagine, however, that his fond father did not make
his hours long, and that there were pleasant ramblings in
 the woods nearby, and that many a bunch of flowers
was gathered for the mother at home. There were
happy hours, too, when the father and his son read
together great books of poetry in which tales of love and
knightly encounters were interesting parts. And then,
I am sure, there were other happy hours when, tuning
their instruments together, they filled the time with
music's sweetest discourse.
This was indeed a happy childhood, a fit beginning
for an ideal life. Meanwhile the boy grew strong, and
his beauty, too, increased. The dark hair lay lightly
upon his shoulders, and a certain dreaminess in his eyes
deepened,—he was about to feel a great sorrow, for the
father, so devoted, so exemplary, died when his boy was
but eleven years old. We cannot help wishing that he
might have lived to see at least one great picture painted
by his son. We can easily imagine his smile of joy "at
the first stroke that surpassed what he could do."
Just what to do with the boy on the death of his
father was an important matter for the step-mother and
uncle to decide. They showed wisdom by their decision.
Now, the greatest of all the Umbrian painters, before
Raphael, was a queer little miserly man named Perugino,
who at that time had a studio in Perugia, an Umbrian
town not far distant from Urbino. Although he was
of mean appearance and ignoble character, he had an
 unmistakable power in painting mild-eyed Madonnas
and spotless saints against delicate landscape
backgrounds. People disliked the man, but they could not
help seeing the beauty of his art, and so his studio was
crowded. Hither was sent the boy Raphael and when
Perugino noted the lad and some of his work, he said,
"Let him be my pupil: he will soon become my master."
As nearly as we can learn, he remained in this studio
nine years, from 1495 to 1504.
Perugino's style of painting greatly pleased Raphael.
He was naturally teachable and this, with his admiration
for Perugino's pictures, made his first work in the studio
very much like his master's. Indeed it is almost
impossible to tell some of his earliest pictures from those of
his teacher. Let me tell you about one. It is called
"The Marriage of the Virgin"; and you would have to
go to the Brera gallery in Milan to see it.
The legend runs thus: The beautiful Mary had many
lovers all wishing to marry her. Now here was a
difficulty indeed, and so the suitors were required to put by
their rough staves for a night. The promise was that
in the morning one would be in blossom, and its owner
should have Mary for his wife. We can imagine that
these lovers were anxious for day to dawn, and that all
but one was sad indeed at the result. In the morning
there were the rods, all save one, brown and rough and
 bare, but that one lay there alive with delicate buds and
flowers, and all the air was full of fragrance. This
was Joseph's, and he went away glad and brought his
young bride. This first great picture of Raphael's
represented this marriage taking place at the foot of
the Temple steps. The disappointed lovers are present
and, I am sorry to say, one of them is showing his anger
by breaking his barren rod even while the marriage is
The first and the last work of a great man are always
interesting, and that is why I have told you so much
about this picture. You will be still more interested in
Raphael's last picture, "The Tansfiguration."
While in the studio he made many friends. With
one he went to Siena to assist him in some fresco painting
he had to do there. Of course you know that fresco is
painting on wet plaster so that the colors dry in with the
The conversation of the studio was often of art and
artists, and so the beautiful city of Florence must often
have been an engaging subject. Think of what Florence
was at this time, and how an artist must have thrilled at
its very name! Beautiful as a flower, with her marble
palaces, her fine churches, her lily-like bell-tower!
What a charm was added when within her walls
Leonardo da Vinci was painting, Michael Angelo
carv-  ing, Savonarola preaching. In the early years of
Raphael's apprenticeship, the voice of the preacher had
been silenced. but still, "with the ineffable left hand,"
Da Vinci painted, and still the marble chips dropped
from Angelo's chisel as a David grew to majesty
beneath his touch.
To Raphael, with his love of the beautiful, with his
zeal to learn, Florence was the city of all others that he
longed to see. At last his dream was to be realized.
A noble woman of Urbino gave him a letter to the
Governor of Florence, expressing the wish that the
young artist might be allowed to see all the art
treasures of the city. The first day of the year 1505
greeted Raphael in Florence, the art center of Italy.
We can only guess at his joy in seeing the works here
and in greeting his fellow artists.
Angelo and Da Vinci had just finished their cartoons
for the town hall, "The Bathing Soldiers," and "The
Battle of the Standard," and they were on exhibition.
All Florence was studying them, and of this throng we
may be sure Raphael was an enthusiastic member.
While here he painted several pictures. Among them
was the "Granduca Madonna," the simplest of all his
Madonnas—just a lovely young mother holding her
babe. It is still in Florence, and to this day people
look at it and say the Grand Duke, who would go
 nowhere without this gem of pictures, knew what was
Raphael did not stay long in Florence at this time,
but soon returned to Perugia. His next visit to
Florence was of greater length. During these years,
1506 to 1508, he painted many of his best known
pictures. In studying the works of Raphael you must
never tire of the beautiful Madonna, for it is said that
he painted a hundred of these, so much did he love the
subject and so successful was he in representing the
child Jesus and the lovely mother. Some of his finest
Madonnas belong to this time. Let us look at a few of
RAPHAEL IN HIS STUDIO
 One, called "The Madonna of the Goldfinch," shows
Mary seated with the Child Jesus at her knee and
the young John presenting him with a finch. which
he carresses gently. The Madonna has the drooping
eyes, the exquisitely rounded face that always charm us,
and the boys are real live children ready for a frolic.
Another, called "The Madonna of the Meadow,"
represents the Virgin in the foreground of a gently broken
landscape with the two children playing beside her.
We must not forget, either, as belonging to this time,
the very beautiful "La Belle Jardiniere," or the
"Madonna of the Garden" which now hangs in the
Louvre, the art gallery of Paris.
LA BELLE JARDINIERE
Like all his great Madonnas, the Virgin and Children
are of surpassing loveliness. It is finished in such a soft,
melting style that to see it in its exquisite coloring, one
could easily imagine it vanishing imperceptibly into the
blaze of some splendid sunset. While we are talking of
Raphael's color it may be interesting to call your
attention to a very remarkable fact about his paintings. He
lays the color on the canvas so thin that sometimes one
can trace through it the lines of the drawing, and yet
his color is so pure and beautiful that he is considered
one of the greatest colorists of the world. The next
time you see an oil painting, notice how thick or how
thin the paint is laid on, and then think of what I have
told you of Raphael's method of using color.
 Now while Raphael was painting these drooping-eyed,
mild-faced Madonnas and learning great lessons
from the masters of Florence, a wonderful honor came
to him. He was called to Rome by the Pope and given
some of the apartments of the Vatican to decorate in any
way he wished.
The Pope at this time was Julius II and he was a very
interesting man. He was a warrior and had spent many
years fighting to gain lands and cities for the Church.
When peace returned he was still anxious to do honor
to the Church and so, wherever he heard of a great
architect, painter, or sculptor, he at once invited him to
Rome to do beautiful work for the Church. Already
he had set Michael Angelo to work on a grand tomb
for him. Bramante, a relative of Raphael's, was
working hard to make St. Peter's the most wonderful
Church in all the world. Now the young Raphael
was to beautify still further the buildings belonging
to the church.
Julius did not pretend to be an artist or a scholar, and
yet by his patronage he greatly encouraged art and
literature. The story is told that when Angelo was
making a statue of the Pope for the town of Bologna,
the artist asked Julius if he should place a book in
the statue's extended left hand, and the Pope retorted,
almost in anger, "What book? Rather a sword—I am no reader!"
 In earlier years Florence had been a glorious sight to
our artist and now in 1708. standing in the "Eternal
City," he was more awed than when first he beheld the
city of the Arno. Here the court of Julius, gorgeous
and powerful, together with the works of art, like St.
Peter's, in process of construction, were but a part of
the wonders to be seen. In addition, the remains of
ancient Rome were scattered all about—here a row
of columns, the only remains of a grand temple, there a
broken statue of some god or goddess, long lost to
sight, and all the earth about so filled with these
treasures that one had only to dig to find some hidden
work of art. The Roman people, too, were awake to
the fact that they were not only living out a marvelous
present, but that they were likewise, in their every day
life, walking ever in the presence of a still more wonderful
past. I wish, while you are thinking about this, that
you would get a picture of the Roman Forum and
notice its groups of columns, its triumphal arches, its
ruined walls. You will then certainly appreciate more
fully what Raphael felt as he went about this city of
The Pope received the young artist cordially and at
once gave him the vast commission of painting in fresco
three large rooms, or stanze, of the Vatican. In addition,
he was to decorate the gallery, or corridor, called the
 loggia, leading to these apartments from the stairway.
With the painting of these walls Raphael and his
pupils were more or less busy during the remainder
of the artist's short life. A great many religious and
historic subjects were used, besides some invented by
Raphael himself, as when he represented Poetry by
Mount Parnassus inhabited by all the great poets past
and present. In these rooms some of his best work is
done. Every year thousands of people go to see these
pictures and, come away more than ever enraptured with
Raphael and his work.
ln the loggia are the paintings known collectively as
Raphael's Bible. Of the fifty-two pictures in the
thirteen arcades of this corridor all but four represent Old
Testament scenes. The others are taken from the New
Testament. Although Raphael's pupils assisted largely
in these frescoes they are very beautiful and will always
rank high among the art works of the time.
Raphael's works seem almost perfect even from the
beginning, yet he was always studying to get the great
points in the work of others and to perfect his own.
Perhaps this is the best lesson we may learn from his
intellectual life—the lesson of unending study and
assimilation. He was greatly interested in the ruins of
Rome and we know that he studied them deeply and
carefully. This is very evident in the Madonnas of his
 Roman period. They have a strength and a power to
make one think great thoughts that is not so marked in
the pictures of his Florentine period.
The "Madonna of the Fish" is one of the most
beautiful of this time. It was painted originally for
a chapel in Naples where the blind prayed for sight,
and where, legend relates, they were often miraculously
answered. The divine Mother, a little older than
Raphael's virgins of earlier years, is seated on a
throne with the ever beautiful child in her arms.
The babe gives his attention to the surpassingly
lovely angel, Eaphael, who brings the young Tobias
with his fish into the presence of the Virgin, of
whom he would beg the healing of his father who is
blind. On the other side he points to a passage in the
book held by the venerable St. Jerome. This is
doubtless the book of Tobit wherein the story of Tobias is
related, and which Tobias translated. Whatever the
real purpose of the artist was in introducing St. Jerome,
a very beautiful result was attained in contrasting youth
and age. Like a human being of note, this picture has
had an eventful history. It was stolen from Naples and
carried to Madrid and then, in the French wars, it was
taken to Paris. It has since been restored to the Prado
of Madrid, and there to-day we may feast our eyes on
its almost unearthly loveliness. In it the divine painter
 showed that he knew the heart of a mother and the love
of a son; that he appreciated the majesty of age and
the heavenly beauty of the angels.
MADONNA OF THE FISH
Hardly less beautiful is the "Madonna Foligno," so
named from the distant view of the town of Foligno
seen under a rainbow in the central part of the picture.
In the upper portion, surrounded by angel heads, is the
Madonna holding out her child to us. Below is the
scene already referred to, the portrait of the donor of
the picture, some saints, and a beautiful boy angel.
The latter is holding a tablet which is to be inscribed,
for this is one of that large class of pictures in Italian
Art called votive—that is, given to the church by an
individual in return for some great deliverance. In
this ease the donor had escaped, as by a miracle, from
a stroke of lightning.
In this short sketch there is time to mention only a
few of Raphael's great pictures, but I trust you will be
so interested that you will look up about others that are
passed over here. There are many very interesting
books about Raphael in which you can find descriptions
of all of his pictures.
Among other paintings, Raphael made many fine
portraits. An excellent likeness of Julius was so well
done that, skillfully placed and lighted, it deceived
some of the Pope's friends into thinking it the living
 The painting of portraits was not the only departure
of our artist from his favorite Madonna or historic
subjects. We find him also interested in mythology. Out
of this interest grew his "Galatea" which he painted
for a wealthy nobleman of his acquaintance. In this
picture Galatea sails over the sea in her shell-boat drawn
by dolphins. She gazes into heaven and seems unconscious
of the nymphs sporting about her.
Speaking of Raphael's use of mythological subjects,
 though not quite in the order of time, we may here
mention his frescos illustrating the story of Cupid and
Psyche, painted on the walls and ceiling of the same
nobleman's palace, the Chigi palace. The drawings for
these pictures were made by Raphael, but most of the
painting was done by his pupils. As we study these
pictures of the joys and sorrows of this beautiful pair,
we are interested, but we regret that our angel-painter
was willing, even for a short time, to leave his own
proper subjects, the religious. We feel like saying,
Let men who know not the depth of religious feeling,
as did Raphael, paint for us the myth and the secular
story, but let us save from any earthly touch our painter
of sacred things."
In 1513 the great Julius died, and Leo X., a member
of the famous Medici family of Florence, succeeded to
his place. Raphael was in the midst of his paintings in
the Vatican, and for a time it was uncertain what the
new Pope would think of continuing these expensive
decorations. Though lacking the energy of Julius,
Leo continued the warrior-pope's policy regarding art
works. So Raphael went on unmolested in his work,
with now and then a great commission added.
During the life of Leo the power of the Church sunk
to a low level, and yet the angel-painter of the Vatican
pursued in peace the composition and painting of his
 The "St. Cecidia," was a very important work painted
about the time of Julius' death. It was painted for a
wealthy woman of Bologna to adorn a chapel which she
had built to St. Cecilia, the patroness of music. She
had built this chapel because she thought she heard
angels telling her to do it; in other words she had
obeyed a vision.
In the picture the saint stands in the centre of a
group made up of St. 'John, St. Paul, St. Augustine,
and Mary Magdalene. She holds carelessly in her hands
an organ from which the reeds are slipping. What
charms can even her favorite instrument have for her
when streams of heaven's own music are reaching her
from the angel choir above? Every line of face and
figure shows her rapt attention to the celestial singers.
The instruments of earthly music lie scattered carelessly
While our attention is held most of all by the figure
of St. Cecilia, the other persons represented interest
its too, especially St. Paul, leaning on his naked sword.
(See illustration.) His massive head and furrowed brow
show man at his noblest occupation—thinking. In
delightful contrast is the ever beautiful St. John, the
embodiment of youth and love.
When the picture was completed Raphael sent it to his
old friend Francia, the artist of Bologna. It is related
 that Francia, on seeing the wonderful perfection of the
picture, died of despair, feeling how poorly he could paint
as compared with Raphael. Whether this story be true
or not, it is certain that the people of Bologna were
much excited over the arrival of the picture and gloried
in possessing the vision of St. Cecilia. The picture is
still to be seen in Bologna, where it retains its brilliant
coloring, slightly mellowed by the passing years.
ST. PAUL — DETAIL FROM ST. CECILIA
The Sistine Chapel was the most beautiful apartment
in the Vatican. Its walls were covered with choicest
frescos. Its ceiling, done by the wonder-working hand
of Michael Angelo, was a marvel. To add still more to
the beauty of this Chapel, Leo ordered Raphael to draw
cartoons for ten tapestries to be hang below the lowest
tier of paintings. Now you know that cartoons are
the large paper drawings made previous to frescos and
tapestries to serve as patterns.
Raphael selected ten subjects from the Acts of the
Apostles. His designs were accepted and suit to Arras
in Flanders where the most beautiful tapestries were
manufactured. The cartoons were cut into strips that
they might be more conveniently used. In 1518 the
tapestries, woven of silk, wool, and gold, were finished
and brought to Rome, where they were greatly admired.
In 1527, Rome was sacked by savage soldiers and
many of her choicest things carried away. Among
 them were these tapestries. They were sold and then
restolen by Jews, who thought to separate the gold by
burning them. They tried this with one and found
that the quantity of gold was so small that it was not
worth the trouble, and so the others were spared and
sold to a merchant of Genoa. They were finally
recovered in a faded condition and are now in the Vatican.
Meanwhile the cartoons were forgotten and three of
them lost. The Flemish artist, Rubens, came across
those remaining, however, and recommened Charles I.
of England to purchase them for his palace at Whitehall.
Later Cromwell bonggbt them for the nation, and today
we may see them pasted together and carefully mounted
In South Kensington Museuem, London. "The Miraculous
Draught of Fishes" is one
of the best of the series. All are bold and
strong in drawing, and several are very beautiful, as
"Paul and John at the Beautiful Gate"
in speaking of the cartoons, says they make the climax
of Raphael's art.
MIRACULOUS DRAUGHT OF FISHES
We must not forget that all these years, while
Raphael was making these wonderfull cartoons and
pictures, the work on the rooms of the Vatican was
going steadily foward. He certainly was a busy man!
Probably the best known of Raphael's Madonnas is
"The Madonna Della Sedia" so called because the
 mother sits in a chair. A delightful story is told of the
painting of this picture. It runs something like this:
Many years ago there lived in a quiet valley in Italy a
hermit who was greatly loved by all the people round
about, for he taught them and he helped them in sickness
and in trouble. His hut was near a giant oak tree that
sheltered him from the sun of summer and the biting
winds of winter. In the constant waving of its branches,
too, it seemed to converse with him, and so he said he
had two intimate friends, one that could talk, and one
that was mute. By the one that could talk he meant
the vine-dresser's daughter who lived near by and who
was very kind to him. By the mute one he meant
this sheltering oak.
MADONNA DELLA SEDIA
Now, one winter a great storm arose, and when the
hermit saw that his hut was unsafe, his mute friend
seemed to beckon him to come up among the branches.
Gathering a few crusts, he went up into the tree where,
with hundreds of bird companions, his life was saved,
though his hut was destroyed. Just as he thought he
should die of hunger, Mary, the vine-dresser's daughter,
came to see her old friend and took him to her home.
Then the pious hermit, Bernardo, prayed that his two
friends might be glorified together in some way.
Time wore on. The hermit died, the oak tree was
cut down and converted into wine casks, and the lovely
 Mary married and was the mother of two boys. One
day as she sat with her children, a young man passed
by. His eyes were restless, and one young have known
him for a poet or a painter in whose mind a celestial
vision was floating. Suddenly he saw the young mother
and her two children. The painter, for it was Raphael,
now beheld his vision made flesh and blood. But he
had only a pencil. On what could he draw the beautiful group?
He seized the clean cover of a wine cask
near by and drew upon it the lines to guide him in his
painting. He went home, and filled out his sketch in
loveliest color, and ever since the world has been his
debtor for giving it his heavenly vision. So the, hermit's
prayer was answered. His two friends were glorified together.
Other honors, Besides those coming from his paintings,
were showered upon Raphael at this time. He was now
rich, and the Cardinal Bibbiena offered him his niece
Maria in marriage. It was considered a great thing, in
those times to be allied by marriage to a church dignitary,
but Raphael had higher honors, and so, while he
accepted the offer rather than offend the cardinal, he
put off the wedding until Maria died. His heart was
not it this contract because, for years he had loved a
humble but beautiful girl, Margherita, who was probably
the model of some of his sweetest Madonnas.
 Speaking of the honors thrust upon Raphael, we must
not forget that the Pope made him architect-in-chief of
St. Peter's on the death of Bramante. He was also
appointed to make drawings of the ancient city of Rome,
in order that the digging for buried remains might be
carried on more intelligently.
In every Madonna we have described, we have had to
use freely the words lovely, great, beautiful but one
there remains which, more than any other, merits all
these titles and others in addition. It is the "Sistine
Madonna" iu the Dresden Gallery. It was the last
picture painted wholly by Raphael's hand. It was
painted originally as a banner for the monks of St.
Sixtus at Piacenza, but it was used as an altar-piece.
In 1754, the Elector of Saxony bought it for $40,000
and it was brought to Dresden with greet pomp.
People who know about pictures generally agree that
this is the greatest picture in the world.
Let its see some of the things which it contains—no
one can ever tell you all, for as the years increase and
your lives are enlarged by joy and by sorrow, you will
ever see more and more in this divine picture and feel
more than you see. Two green curtains are drown aside
and there, floating on the clouds, is the Virgin full
length, presenting the Holy Child to the world. It is
far more then a mother and child, for one sees in the
 Madonna a look suggesting that she sees vaguely the
darkness of Calvary and the glory of the resurrection.
This is no ordinary child, either, that she holds, for He
sees beyond this world into eternity and that His is no
common destiny;—at least, one feels these things as we
gaze at the lovely apparition on its background of clouds
and innumerable angel heads. Pope Sixtus on one side
would know more of this mystery, while St. Barbara on
the other is dazzled by the vision and turns aside her
lovely face. Below are the two cherubs, the final touch
of love, as it were, to this marvelous picture.
It is said that the picture was completed at first
without these cherubs and that they were afterwards added
when Raphael found two little boys resting their arms
on a balustrade, gazing intently up at his picture.
This painting has a room to itself in the Dresden
Gallery, where the most frivolous forget to chat and the
thoughtful sit for hours in quiet meditation under its
magic spell. One man says, "I could spend an hour
every day for years looking at this picture and on the
last day of the last year discover some new beauty and
a new joy.
There was now great division of opinion in Rome as
to whether Angelo or Raphael were the greater painter.
Cardinal de Medici ordered two pictures for the
Cathedral of Narbonne, in France, one by Raphael and one
 by Sebastian Piombo, a favorite pupil of Angelo's.
People knew that Angelo would never openly compete
with Raphael, but they also felt sure that he would
assist his pupil. The subject chosen by Raphael was
"The Transfiguration." But suddenly, even before this
latest commission was completed, that magic hand had
been stopped by death. The picture, though finished
by Raphael's pupils, is a great work. The ascending
Lord is the point of greatest interest in the upper, or
celestial part, while the father with his demoniac child,
holds our attention in the lower, or terrestrial portion.
At his funeral this unfinished picture hung above the
dead painter, and his sorrowing friends must have felt,
as Longfellow wrote of Hawthorne when he lay dead
with an unfinished story on his bier,—
"Ah, who shall lift that wand of magic power,
And the lost clew regain?
The unfinished window in Aladdin's tower
Unfinished must retrain."
Raphael died suddenly on his birthday in 1520, from
a fever contracted while searching for remains among the
ruins of Rome. He realized from the first that his
sickness was fatal, and he immediately set about disposing
of his property. His works of art he gave to his pupils,
his palace to Cardinal Bibbiena, and his other property
was distributed among his relatives, and to his
sweet-  heart, Margherita. He was buried with honors in the
Pantheon at Rome, beside Maria Bibbiena.
For many years there was exhibited at St. Luke's
Academy, in Rome, a so-called skull of Raphael. In
1833 some scholars declared that they did not believe
this to be the skull of the artist. They urged the
authorities to open the grave to prove their position.
After five days of careful digging the coffin was reached
and there lay the artist's skeleton complete. For many
days it was exposed to view in a glass case. A cast was
taken of the right hand and of the skull, and then, with
splendid ceremonies, they buried the artist a second time.
Mention has often been made of Raphael's personal
beauty. Only thirty-seven when he died, his seraphic
beauty was never marred by age.
In his palace he lived the life of a prince, and when
he walked abroad, he had a retinue of devoted followers.
He had for friends princes and prelates, artists and
poets, while the common people loved him for the fine
spirit they knew him to be.
Judged by the moral standard of his time, he was
absolutely spotless. Seldom, in any man, have all good
qualities joined with a versatile genius to the extent that
they did in Raphael. No wonder that his friends caused
to be inscribed on his tomb these words—"This is
that Raphael by whom, Nature feared to be conquered
while he lived, and to die when he died."
REFERENCES FOR RAPHAEL.
"Life of Raphael" by Bell.
"Life of Raphael" by Sweetster.
"Life of Raphael" by Vasari.
"Schools and Masters of Painting" by Radcliffe.
"History of Art" by Luebke.
"History of Art" by Mrs. Heaton.
"Great Artists" by Mrs. Shedd.
"The Fine Arts" by Symonds.
"Early Italian Painters" by Mrs. Jameson.
SUBJECTS FOR LANGUAGE WORK.
1. The Boy Raphael at Home.
2. My Favorite Madonna.
3. Stories of St. Francis of Assisi.
4. What I know of Fresco Painting.
5. Looking for Buried Treasures in Rome.
6. A Day in the Roman Forum.
7. A Day with the Boy Raphael.
8. The Legend of the Madonna della Sedia.
9. Raphael and His Friends.
10. Raphael the Student.
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