HOW RIVERS ARE MADE
HAVE you ever seen a brook or creek? A river? Is there a brook or river near here? Who can tell
where it begins? where the water conies from that fills it? where it goes? Let us try to understand
As vapor rises into high, cool air, or is carried with the air in winds up the sides of mountains,
it turns into water again, and comes falling down as rain.
Now think where the rain that falls on mountains must go. Some of the water runs off on the surface,
down the mountain slope. Some sinks into the ground, and runs along in little streams below the
surface. It will appear again, bubbling out of the mountain side as a spring. The spring is the
beginning of a river.
 Did you ever see a spring? Where was it? Was it shaded by trees? Where did the water come from? Did
you drink from it? Was the water pure and cold? Where did the water go after leaving the spring?
HAVE YOU EVER SEEN A SPRING?
From the spring flows a tiny, thread-like stream, so small that we can easily step across it. This
little stream is called a rill.
Other rills meet this, and form a larger stream, which is called a brook or creek.
As the brook flows on, it is joined by other streams, until, little by little, it becomes a wide
and deep river on which large boats may float. At last, it finds its way into the ocean.
Where a river begins is its source. The place where it flows into another body of water is called
its mouth. The land over which it flows is its bed.
A RIVER FROM ITS SOURCE TO ITS MOUTH
A river has two banks. As we go toward
 its mouth, the right bank is on our right hand, and the left
bank is on our left.
Do you live near a river? Where does the water come from? In what direction does it flow? Why does
it flow in such direction? Does it wind about much? Does it flow into the ocean, or into another
Is the water fresh or salt? What grow on its banks? Near which bank do you live?
Make a picture of a spring, and a brook flowing from it. Draw the tall grass and plants that grow
Write the names of all the rivers you have seen.
Write the following:
Water flowing out of the ground is called a spring.
From springs flow small streams called rills, brooks, or creeks.
A large stream of water flowing through the land is called a river.
A small stream of water flowing into a larger one is called a tributary.
The source of a river is where it begins. The place where it empties into another body of water is
Every river has two banks—a right-hand bank and a left-hand bank.