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 FRANCIS I. soon made it plain that he did not mean to
keep the Treaty of Madrid,
which he had signed only that he might escape from his
gloomy Spanish prison. The
Emperor Charles was angry when he found that he had
been duped by the French king,
and soon war again broke out between France and Spain.
During this war, in 1527, the Duke of Bourbon with his
German mercenaries dared to
assail the walls of Rome. "Clad all in white," that he
might the better be seen by
his men, the duke was shot as he was scaling the walls
of the city. As he fell he
bade one of his captains cover him with a cloak, and
carry him away, that his men
might not know of his death until the city was taken.
By August 1529 Charles and Francis had both grown weary
of War, and once again a
treaty was signed, called the Treaty of Camlwai, or the
"Ladies' Peace," because it
was chiefly arranged by two royal ladies, Margaret of
Austria and Louise of Savoy.
Three years later Louise of Savoy died, leaving great
wealth to her son, the king.
Then Francis, thinking that now he had money enough to
pay an army, again began to
invade Charles"s domains. The emperor, however, not
only drove the French back to
their own country, but himself marched with his troops
into the south of France.
A French general, named Montmorency, was sent to
repulse the invaders. But though he
had a splendid
 army, he would neither fight nor
garrison the important towns.
Instead, he sent his soldiers to wander through the
beautiful country of Provence,
with orders to destroy everything that would otherwise
give shelter or food to the
Farms were burned, olive-yards and vineyards trampled
down and destroyed. Bakehouses
and mills were pulled to pieces, and wheat and hay
consumed by fire. Wells were, if
not poisoned, made useless for drinking; wine-casks
were pierced, so that there
might be no wine to refresh the weary army. In a short
time no more desolate land
than Provence was to be seen.
For two months Charles V., refusing to be baffled,
struggled on through the desolate
country with his starving army. But at length, hearing
that Francis himself, with a
large army, was marching against him, he gave up all
hope of conquering Provence,
and retreated into Italy. The emperor had fought no
battle, but he had brought
misery and starvation to many a fair home in the south
The king's two sons had by this time left Spain and
returned home. Shortly before
Francis marched against Charles, Francis the Dauphin
died. This was a great grief to
The king's second son, Henry, a moody, passionate
prince, now became heir to the
throne. He allied himself with Montmorency, who had
been made constable after the
emperor had been forced to leave Provence. The
constable was a strict Catholic, and
a powerful and ambitious noble.
Meanwhile, in June 1538, a truce for ten years was made
between Francis and Charles.
It only lasted for four years, for the French king
still wished to punish Charles
for becoming emperor. So for six years, battles of
which I need not tell you were
 the rival monarchs. But at last,
in 1544, a treaty was signed
at Crespy, by which Francis gave up his claim to any
possessions in Italy, while he
also promised to join the emperor in upholding the
Roman Catholic Church and putting
down the Reformers.
The Reformers, who were also called Protestants, were
sorry when they saw the greedy
and wicked lives of many of the monks in the Romish
Church, and they wished to
reform the Church so that only those who lived pure and
holy lives might be her
A great movement, called the Reformation, was begun by
the Reformers, and soon
spread all over France and Germany. Indeed, before
long, the new sect was to be
found in every town and village in Europe.
The Pope was very angry that any one should think that
the Church, of which he was
the head, should need to be reformed, and he encouraged
Charles and Francis to
punish the Reformers.
In Germany the great Martin Luther fought against the
evils of the Church. In France
John Calvin used his power on the same side.
Francis I. kept the promise he had made at Crespy by
beginning to persecute the
peasants of Vaudois. The Vaudians or Waldensians were
quiet, hardworking, honest
folk, who lived in certain valleys among the Alps. They
were no longer Catholic, but
worshipped God in their own simple way, and were known
as Reformers or Protestants.
One spring morning in 1545 Francis sent his soldiers
into the silent valleys, where
the peasants lived their simple lives, with orders to
slay the Waldensians and
destroy their homes.
Three thousand people were put to death, and many more
were sent to the galleys,
while hundreds of children were sold as slaves.
Lest any Reformer had escaped, Francis's captain,
before he marched home, forbade
"any one on pain of death
 to give any asylum, aid
or succour, or furnish money
or victuals, to any Vaudian or heretic." There is no
deeper stain on the name of
Francis I. than this cruel persecution of the peasants
of Vaudois. The Reformers had
cause to fear the king; but when the dauphin married
the Pope's niece, Catherine de
Medici, they knew that even when Francis I. no longer
reigned they would still have
reason to fear their new sovereign.
During the last years of the king's life the kingdom
was largely ruled by the
dauphin, along with the Montmorencies and the Guises,
the two most powerful families
Early in 1547 the king grew seriously ill. As he lay
dying, Diana of Poitiers, the
dauphin's great favourite, and the Duke of Guise,
mocked at their king, saying, "He
is going at last, the fine fellow." Thus, with none to
comfort him, Francis I. died.
At his father's funeral the dauphin could scarcely
conceal his happiness that now,
at length, he would really begin to reign.
In spite of all his wars Francis I. had found time,
after the Treaty of Cambrai in
1529, to show his interest in the new love of books, of
painting, and of sculpture,
that had arisen in his reign.
This new love of literature, painting, and other arts
was called the Renaissance.
The king, in his desire to encourage a revival of
learning, had invited to his court
poets, artists, musicians, sculptors, to show the
interest he felt in their
pursuits, and the honour in which he held them. A great
Italian painter named
Leonardo da Vinci, as well as an Italian sculptor
called Benvenuto Cellini, not only
visited but lived at the king's court. Francis had also
shown his love of
architecture by building many beautiful palaces, among
which the best known is