THE FIRST PART
 AS I slept I dreamed a dream. I dreamed, and behold, I saw a man clothed with rags, standing
in a certain place, with his face away from his own house, a book in his hand, and a great
burden upon his back.
I looked, and saw him open the book, and read therein, and as he read, he wept and
trembled. His fear was so great that he brake out with a mournful cry, saying, "What shall
In this plight therefore he went home, and did all he could to hide his distress from his
wife and children. But he could not be silent long, because his trouble increased.
Wherefore at length he began to talk to his wife and children thus: "O my dear wife", said
he, "and you my children, I am in despair
 by reason of a burden that lieth heavy on me. Moreover I am for certain told that this our
city will be burned with fire from heaven, when both myself, with thee, my wife, and you,
my sweet babes, shall be ruined, except some way of escape can be found."
At this his wife and children were sore amazed, not because they believed that what he had
said to them was true, but because they thought he must be ill to talk in so strange a
way. Therefore, as it was evening, and they hoped sleep might soothe him, with all haste
they got him to bed.
But the night was as troublesome to him as the day, wherefore instead of sleeping he spent
it in sighs and tears.
So when the morning was come, they asked him how he did. He told them, "Worse and worse,"
and began to talk to them again in the same strange manner, but they began to be careless
of his words. They also thought to drive away his fancies by harsh and rough behaviour to
him. Sometimes they would mock, sometimes they would
 scold, and sometimes they would quite neglect him.
Wherefore he began to stay in his room to pray for and pity them, and also to comfort his
own misery. He would also walk alone in the fields, sometimes reading and sometimes
praying, and thus for some days he spent his time.
Now I saw in my dream that when he was walking in the fields, he was reading his book and
greatly distressed in mind. And as he read, he burst out crying, "What shall I do to be
I saw also that he looked this way and that way, as if he would run. Yet he stood still,
because, as I saw, he could not tell which way to go.
I looked then, and saw a man, named Evangelist, coming to him, who asked, "Wherefore dost
He answered, "Sir, I see by the book in my hand that I am condemned to die, and after that
to be judged. And I find I am not willing to die, nor able to be judged."
 Then said Evangelist, "Why not willing to die, since in this life you are so unhappy?"
The man answered, "Because I fear this burden will sink me lower than the grave, and the
thought of that makes me cry."
Then said Evangelist, "If this be thy fear, why standest thou still?"
He answered, "Because I know not whither to go."
So Evangelist gave him a parchment roll, and there was written within, "Fly from the wrath
The man therefore read it, and looking upon Evangelist very carefully, said, "Whither must
Then said Evangelist, pointing with his finger over a very wide field, "Do you see yonder
The man said, "No."
"Well," said the other, "Do you see yonder shining light?"
He said, "I think I do."
"DO YOU SEE YONDER WICKET-GATE?"
Then said Evangelist, "Keep that light in
 thine eye, and go up directly thereto, so shalt thou see the gate. When thou knockest, it
shall be told thee what thou shalt do."
So I saw in my dream that the man began to run.
Now he had not run far from his own door when his wife and children, seeing it, began to
cry after him to return.
But the man put his fingers in his ears, and ran on, crying, "Life, life, eternal life!"
So he looked not behind him, but fled towards the middle of the plain.
The neighbours also came out to see him run. And as he ran some mocked, others threatened,
and some cried after him to return.
Among those that did so were two that were resolved to fetch him back by force.
The name of the one was Obstinate, and the name of the other was Pliable.
Now by this time the man was got a good distance from them, but they had made up their
minds to follow him, which they did, and in a little time overtook him.
 Then said the man, "Neighbours, wherefore are you come?"
They said, "To persuade you to go back with us."
But he said, "That can by no means be. You dwell in the City of Destruction, the place
where I was born. Be content, good neighbours, and go along with me."
"What!" said Obstinate, "and leave our friends and our comforts behind us!"
"Yes," said Christian, for that was his name.
"What do you seek, since you leave all the world to find it?" said Obstinate.
"I seek a treasure that never fades away. It is laid up in heaven and is safe there," said
Christian. "Read it so, if you will, in my book."
"Tush!" said Obstinate, "away with your book. Will you go back with us or no?"
"No, not I," said the other, "because I have just set out."
"Come then, Neighbour Pliable, let us turn again and go home without him."
 Then said Pliable, "If what the good Christian says is true, the things he looks after are
better than ours. My heart makes me wish to go with him. But, my good Christian, do you
know the way you are going?"
"I am directed by a man, whose name is Evangelist, to speed me to a little gate that is
before us, where we shall be told about the way."
"Come then, good neighbour," said Pliable, "let us be going." Then they went both
"And I will go back to my place," said Obstinate. "I will be no companion of such mistaken
and foolish fellows."
Now I saw in my dream that when Obstinate was gone back, Christian and Pliable went
talking over the plain.
"I will tell you what my book says of the country to which we are going, and of the people
we shall meet there," said Christian.
"But do you think the words of your book are certainly true?" said Pliable.
 "Yes," said Christian, "for it was written by Him who cannot lie."
"Well," said Pliable, "tell me about this country."
"In this country," said Christian, "we shall live for ever. There are crowns of glory to
be given us, and garments that will make us shine like the sun."
"This is excellent," said Pliable; "and what else?"
"There shall be no more crying nor sorrow, for He that is the Owner of the place will wipe
all tears from our eyes," said Christian.
"And what companions shall we have there?" asked Pliable.
"There we shall be with those that will dazzle your eyes to look on. There also you shall
meet with thousands and tens of thousands that have gone before us to that place. None of
them are hurtful, but loving and holy. In a word, there shall we see some with their
golden crowns, there we shall see maidens with golden harps, there we shall see men that
here were cut in pieces, burnt
 in flames, eaten by beasts, and drowned in the seas, all for the love they bare to the
Lord of this place. Now they are all well, and clothed with beautiful garments."
And as Pliable heard of the excellence of the country and of the company to which they
were going, he said, "Well, my good companion, glad am Ito hear of these things. Come on,
let us go with more speed."
"I cannot go as fast as I would by reason of this burden that is on my back," said
Now I saw in my dream that just as they had ended their talk, they drew nigh to a bog that
was in the midst of the plain, and they being heedless did both fall suddenly into it. The
name of this bog was the Slough of Despond.
Here therefore they struggled for a time, being grievously covered with dirt. And
Christian, because of the burden that was on his back, began to sink in the mire.
Then said Pliable, "Ah, Neighbour Christian, where are you now?"
 "Truly; said Christian, "I do not know."
At this Pliable began to be offended, and said angrily, "Is this the happiness you have
told me of all this while? If I get out again with my life, you shall possess the
wonderful country alone."
And with that he gave a desperate struggle or two, and got out of the mire on that side of
the bog which was next to his own house. So away he went, and Christian saw him no more.
Wherefore Christian was left to tumble in the Slough of Despond alone. But still he tried
to struggle to that side of the Slough that was further from his own house, and next to
the Wicket-gate. But he could not get out because of the burden that was upon his back.
And I beheld in my dream that a man came to him, whose name was Help, and asked him what
he did there.
"Sir," said Christian, "I was bid to go this way by a man called Evangelist, who
 directed me also to yonder gate, and as I was going thither I fell in here."
"Why did you not look for the steps?" said Help.
"I was so full of fear," answered Christian, "that I fled the next way and fell in."
Then said Help, "Give me thy hand." So Christian gave him his hand, and he drew him out
and set him upon sound ground, and bid him go on his way.
Now in my dream I stepped up to the man that plucked Christian out, and said:
"Sir, wherefore, since over this place is the way from the City of Destruction to the
Wicket-gate, is it that this Slough is not mended, that poor travellers might go over in
And he said to me, "This place cannot be mended, yet it is not the pleasure of the King
that it should remain so bad. His labourers also have for more than sixteen hundred years
been employed on this patch of ground, in the hope that it might perhaps be mended. There
has been swallowed up
 here twenty thousand cartloads of the best material in the attempt to mend the place. But
it is the Slough of Despond still; and still will be so, when they have done all they can.
It is true that there are some good and strong steps even through the very midst of this
mire. But men through the dizziness of their head miss the steps and so tumble into the
mire, but the ground is good when they have once got in at the gate."
Then I saw in my dream that by this time Pliable was got home to his house. So his
neighbours came to visit him, and some of them called him wise man for coming back, and
some called him fool for going with Christian. Others again did mock at his cowardliness,
saying, "Surely since you began to go, you need not have been so base as to have given out
for a few difficulties. So Pliable sat like a coward among them.
Now as Christian was walking alone, he espied one afar off, come crossing over the field
to meet him. The gentleman's name
 was Mr. Worldly Wiseman. He dwelt in a very great town, close by the one from which
This man, then, meeting with Christian, began thus to enter into some talk with him.
"How now, good fellow, whither are you going in this burdened manner?"
"A burdened manner indeed," said Christian. "I am going, sir, to yonder Wicket-gate before
me, for there, I am told, I shall be put into a way to be rid of my heavy burden."
"Hast thou a wife and children? asked Mr. Worldly Wiseman.
"Yes, but I am so laden with this burden that I cannot take that pleasure in them as
"Will you hearken to me if I give thee counsel?"
"If it be good, I will, for I stand in need of good counsel."
"I would advise thee, then, that thou with all speed get thyself rid of thy burden, for
thou wilt never be contented till then."
 "That is what I seek for, even to be rid of this heavy burden, but get it off myself I
cannot, nor is there any man living in our country can take it off my shoulders. Therefore
am I going this way, as I told you, that I may be rid of my burden."
"Who bid thee go this way to be rid of thy burden?"
"A man that appeared to me a very great and honourable person. His name, as I remember, is
"He has given thee foolish counsel. There is not a more dangerous and troublesome way in
the world than is that unto which he hath directed thee. Thou halt met with some danger
already, for I see the mud of the Slough of Despond is upon thee. Hear me, I am older than
thou. Thou art likely to meet with, in the way which thou goest, painfulness, hunger,
nakedness, sword, lions, dragons, darkness, and death."
"Why, sir, this burden upon my back is more terrible to me than all these things." "But
why wilt thou seek for ease this way,
 seeing so many dangers attend it? Hadst thou but patience to listen, I could direct thee
how to get what thou desirest, without the danger that thou in this way wilt run thyself
"Sir, I pray that thou wilt tell me this secret."
"Why, in yonder village there dwells a gentleman, who is very wise, and who has skill to
help men off with burdens like thine from their shoulders. To him thou mayest go to be
helped at once. His house is not quite a mile from this place, and if thou dost not desire
to go back to the City of Destruction, as indeed I would not wish thee, thou mayest send
for thy wife and children to come to thee to this village. There are houses now standing
empty, one of which thou mayest have without great cost. Food is there also, cheap and
good, and what will make thy life the more happy is, that thou shalt live beside honest
neighbours, in respect and comfort."
Now was Christian puzzled, but he
 thought, "If what Mr. Worldly Wiseman says is true, my wisest plan is to take his advice."
"Sir," said Christian, "which is my way to this honest man's house?"
"Do you see yonder high hill?"
"Yes, very well."
"By that hill you must go, and the first house you come to is his."
So Christian turned out of his way to go to the house for help. But behold, when he was
now close to the hill, it seemed so steep, and also that side of it that was next the
wayside did hang so much over, that Christian was afraid to venture farther, lest the hill
should fall on his head. Wherefore he stood still, and knew not what to do. Also his
burden now seemed heavier to him than while he was in his way. There came also flashes of
fire out of the hill, that made Christian afraid that he should be burned. Here therefore
he did quake for fear.
And now he began to be sorry that he had taken Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel.
 Then he saw Evangelist coming to meet him, at the sight also of whom he began to blush for
So Evangelist drew nearer and nearer, and coming up to him, he looked upon him with a
severe and dreadful countenance.
"What dost thou here, Christian?" said he. At which words Christian knew not what to
answer, wherefore at first he stood speechless before him.
Then said Evangelist, "Art not thou the man I found crying without the walls of the City
"Yes," said Christian, "I am the man."
"Did I not direct thee the way to the little Wicket-gate?"
Yes," said Christian.
"How is it, then, that thou art so quickly turned out of the way?"
"I met with a gentleman, as soon as I had got over the Slough of Despond, who told me that
in yonder village I might find a man who could take off my burden."
"What was he like?"
 "He looked like a gentleman, and talked much to me, and got me at last to believe his
words. So I came hither, but when I beheld this hill and how it hangs over the way, I
suddenly stood still, lest it should fall on my head."
"What said that gentleman to you?"
"Why, he asked me whither I was going, and if I had a wife and children, and he bid me
make speed to get rid of my burden. And I said, 'I am going to yonder gate to be told how
I may get rid of it.'"
"So he said he would show me a better and a shorter way, and not so full of difficulties
as the way that you directed me. But when I came to this place, I stopped for fear of
danger, and now I know not what to do!" So Christian stood trembling before Evangelist.
Then said Evangelist, "Give heed to the things I shall tell thee. Mr. Worldly Wiseman
sought to turn thee out of the way and to bring thee into danger. In yonder village has no
man ever yet got rid of his
 burden, nor is he ever likely to lose it there. Therefore, Mr. Worldly Wiseman and his
friend are deceivers, and cannot help thee."
After this there came words and fire out of the mountain under which Christian stood.
Now Christian looked for nothing but death, and began to cry out, saying he would he had
never met Mr. Worldly Wiseman or that he had never listened to him.
Then he turned to Evangelist and said, "Sir, what do you think? Is there any hope? May I
now go back and go up to the Wicket-gate? Or shall I be sent back from the gate ashamed? I
am sorry I have listened to this man's counsel, but may my sins be forgiven?"
Evangelist said to him, "Thy sin is very great. Thou hast left the good way and walked in
forbidden paths. Yet will the man at the gate receive thee, for he has goodwill for men.
Only," said he, "take heed that thou turn not aside again."
Then did Christian prepare to go back. And Evangelist, after he had kissed him,
 gave him one smile, and bid him God-speed.
So Christian went on with haste, neither spake he to any man by the way. Even if any one
spoke to him, he would not venture an answer.
He walked like one that was all the while treading on forbidden ground, and could by no
means think himself safe, till again he had got into the way which he had left to follow
Mr. Worldly Wiseman's counsel. So in process of time Christian got up to the gate.
Now over the gate there was written, "Knock, and it shall be opened unto you."
He knocked therefore more than once or twice.
At last there came a grave person to the gate, named Goodwill. He asked who was there, and
whence he came, and what he desired.
"I am a sinner," said Christian; "I come from the City of Destruction, but am going to
Mount Zion. I am told that by this gate is
 the way thither, and I would know if you are willing to let me in."
"I am willing with all my heart," said Goodwill, and he opened the gate.
So when Christian was stepping in, the other gave him a pull.
"Why do you do that?" said Christian.
Then Goodwill told him, "A little distance from this gate a strong castle has been built,
of which Beelzebub is the captain. And he and those that are with him shoot arrows at
those that come up to this gate, hoping they may die before they enter in."
So when Christian had come in, Goodwill asked him who had directed him to the gate.
"Evangelist bid me come here and knock, as I did. And he said that you, sir, would tell me
what I must do."
Then Goodwill said, "Come a little way with me, good Christian, and I will teach thee
about the way thou must go. Look before thee; dost thou see this narrow way? That is the
way thou must go, and it is as
 straight as a rule can make it. This is the way thou must go."
"But," said Christian, "are there no turnings, nor windings, by which a stranger may lose
"Yes, there are many ways join this, but they are crooked and wide. Thou mayest know the
right from the wrong way, for the right way is always strait and narrow.
Then I saw in my dream that Christian asked him if he could not help him off with his
burden that was upon his back. For as yet he had not got rid of it, nor could he get it
off without help.
But Goodwill said, "Thou must be content to bear it, until thou comest to a place where
stands a Cross, for there it will fall from thy back of itself.
Then Christian began to get ready to continue his journey. So Goodwill told him that when
he had gone some distance from the gate, he would come to the house of the Interpreter, at
whose door he should knock, and he would show him wonderful things.
 Then Christian took leave of his friend, and he again bid him God-speed.
Now Christian went on till he came to the house of the Interpreter, where he knocked over
and over. At last one came to the door and asked who was there.
"Sir," said Christian, "I am a traveller who was told by Goodwill to call here. I would
therefore speak with the master of the house." So he called for the master of the house,
who, after a little time, came to Christian and asked what he would have.
"Sir," said Christian, "I am a man that has come from the City of Destruction, and I am
going to Mount Zion. I was told by the man that stands at the Wicket-gate that if I called
here you would show me things that would help me on my journey."
Then said the Interpreter, "Come in, and I will show thee what will help thee." So he
commanded his man to light the candle, and bid Christian follow him. Then he took him into
a private room, and bid his man open a door.
 And Christian saw the picture of a very grave person hung up against the wall. He had eyes
lifted up to heaven, the best of books in his hand, and a crown of gold did hang over his
Then said Christian, "What means this?"
"The man whose picture this is," answered the Interpreter, "is one of a thousand. He is
the only man who may be thy guide in all difficult places thou mayest meet with in the
way. Wherefore be very careful to remember whom thou hast seen."
Then the Interpreter led him into a very large parlour that was full of dust, because it
was never swept, and after he had looked at it for a little while, the Interpreter called
for a man to sweep.
"BRING HITHER THE WATER AND SPRINKLE THE ROOM."
Now when he began to sweep, the dust began to fly about, so that Christian was almost
choked. Then said the Interpreter to a damsel that stood near, "Bring hither the water and
sprinkle the room." And when this was done the room was swept and cleansed.
 Then said Christian, "What does this mean?"
The Interpreter answered, "This parlour is like the heart of an evil man. The dust is his
sin, and the damsel that sprinkles the water is the Gospel.
I saw moreover in my dream, that the Interpreter took Christian by the hand and led him
into a little room, where sat two little children, each one in his chair. The name of the
eldest was Passion, and the name of the other Patience. Passion seemed to be very
discontented, but Patience was very quiet.
Then Christian asked, "What is the reason of the discontent of Passion?"
The Interpreter answered, "The governor of the children would have them wait for their new
toys, till the beginning of next year, but Passion wishes to have them all now, while
Patience is willing to wait."
Then the Interpreter took Christian to a place where there was a fire burning against a
wall, and one standing near it,
 always casting much water upon it to quench it, yet did the fire burn higher and hotter.
But afterwards the Interpreter took him to the back of the wall, where he saw a man with a
vessel of oil in his hand, and he poured the oil continually, but secretly, into the fire.
"What does this mean?" asked Christian.
The Interpreter answered, "The fire is a picture of the grace God puts into the heart. He
that casts water on it to put it out is the Evil One. And the man who pours oil on the
fire to keep it alight is Christ."
I saw also that the Interpreter took Christian again by the hand and led him into a place,
where was builded a stately palace, beautiful to behold, at the sight of which Christian
was greatly delighted.
He saw also upon the top of the palace certain persons walking, and they were clothed all
Then said Christian, "May we go in here?"
So the Interpreter took him and led him
 toward the door of the palace. Now before they came up to the door, they passed a man,
sitting at a table, with a book and his inkhorn before him, to take down the name of any
who should enter.
And, behold, at the door stood a great company of men, who wished to go in, but did not
dare to enter, for within the doorway stood many men in armour to guard it.
Now, these men in armour were determined to do any who would enter as much harm and
mischief as they could.
Now was Christian amazed.
At last, when every man started back for fear of the armed men, Christian saw a man with a
very strong face come up to the man that sat at the table, saying:
"Set down my name, sir."
And when this was done, Christian saw the strong man draw his sword and put an helmet on
his head, and rush toward the door upon the armed men.
The armed men fought with great strength, but the man with the strong face
 was not at all discouraged, but fought most fiercely.
So after he had received and given many wounds to those that tried to keep him out, he cut
his way through them all, and pressed forward into the palace.
Then there was a pleasant voice heard from those that walked upon the top of the palace
"Come in, come in;
Eternal glory thou shalt win."
So he went in and was clothed in such garments as they.
"Now; said Christian, "let me go."
And the Interpreter said, "Hast thou understood these things?"
"Yes," said Christian, and he began to get ready to go on his journey.
Then said the Interpreter, "God be always with thee, good Christian, to guide thee in the
way that leads to Mount Zion."
Now I saw in my dream that the highway up which Christian was to go was fenced on either
side with a wall. Up this way
there-  fore did Christian run, but not without great difficulty, because of the load on his back.
He ran thus till he came to a steeper place, and upon that place stood a Cross, and a
little below, a Sepulchre.
So I saw in my dream that just as Christian came up to the Cross his burden fell from off
his back, and began to tumble till it came to the mouth of the Sepulchre, where it fell in
and I saw it no more.
Then was Christian glad and happy, and be stood for a while to look and wonder, for it was
surprising to him to see that the Cross should make him lose his burden.
Now as he stood looking, behold three Shining Ones came to him and greeted him.
The first said to him, "Thy sins be forgiven thee." The second took away all his rags and
clothed him in new raiment. The third set a mark on his forehead and gave him a roll with
a seal on it, which he should give in at the Celestial Gate. So they went their way.
 Then Christian gave three leaps for joy and went on singing.
I saw then in my dream that as he walked he saw two men come tumbling over the wall into
the narrow way.
"Gentlemen, where do you come from and whither do you go?" said Christian.
They told him, "We were born in a land called Vainglory, and we are going to Mount Zion."
"Why came you not in at the gate?" said Christian.
They said that to go to the gate was too far, so they had taken a short cut and climbed
over the wall.
"But," said Christian, "will the Lord of the City to which we are going be pleased that.
you should come into the way over the wall?"
But the men said he need not trouble his head about that, for what they did had been done
many times before. It had been a. custom for more than a thousand years. And besides, said
they, "If we get into the way, what does it matter how we get in?
 You came in by the Wicket-gate, and are in the way, and we came tumbling over the wall and
are in the way, so now we are all in the same condition."
"But," said Christian, "I walk by the Rule of my Master, and you walk just as you like
Then said they, "We see not how thou art different to us, except by the coat thou wearest,
and that, we suppose, was given thee by some of thy neighbours, to hide thy rags."
"Well," said Christian, "the Lord of the City to which I go gave me this coat the day that
he took away from me my rags. He will surely know me, since I have His coat on my back. I
have also a mark in my forehead, which you may not have noticed, and this was given to me
by one of my Lord's friends, on the day my burden fell off my shoulders. I will tell you
too, that I had a roll given me, to comfort me by reading, as I go on the way. I am also
to give in the roll at the Celestial Gate. All these things I
 think you are without, because you came not in at the gate."
To these things they gave him no answer, only they looked at each other and laughed.
I beheld then, that they all went on without talking much together, till they came to the
foot of the hill Difficulty, at the bottom of which was a spring. The narrow way lay right
up the hill, but there were also two other ways here. One turned to the left hand and the
other to the right at the bottom of the hill.
Christian now went to the spring and drank to refresh himself, and then began to go up the
narrow path that led to the top of the hill.
The other two also came to the foot of the hill. But when they saw that the hill was steep
and high, they made up their minds to go in the other paths that lay round the side of the
So one took the way that was called Danger, which led him into a great wood, and the other
took the way called
Destruc-  tion, which led him into a wide field, full of dark mountains, where he stumbled and fell
and rose no more.
I looked then to Christian to see him go up the hill, and then I saw that he had begun to
clamber upon his hands and his knees, because of the steepness of the place.
Now about midway to the top of the hill was a pleasant arbour, made by the Lord of the
hill for the refreshing of weary travellers.
When Christian got there he sat down to rest, then he pulled out his roll and read in it
to comfort himself, and he began again to look at the garment that was given to him at the
Thus he at last fell into a slumber, and then into a sound sleep, which kept him in that
place, until it was almost night, and in his sleep his roll fell out of his hand.
Now, as he was sleeping, there came one to him and awaked him. Then Christian suddenly
started up and sped on his way till he came to the top of the hill.
 When he was got to the top of the hill, there came two men running to meet him. The name
of the one was Timorous, and the other Mistrust.
"Sirs," said Christian, "what is the matter? You run the wrong way."
Timorous answered that they were going to the City of Zion and had got up that difficult
place. "But," said he, "the farther we go, the more danger we meet with, wherefore we
turned and are going back again."
"Yes," said Mistrust; "for just before us lies a couple of lions in the way, whether
sleeping or waking we know not, but we thought if we came within reach, they would pull us
Then said Christian, "You make me afraid, but yet I will go forward." So Mistrust and
Timorous ran down the bill, and Christian went on his way.
And as he went he thought again of what he heard from the men. Then he felt for his roll,
that he might read and be comforted, but he felt and found it not.
 Now was Christian in great distress and knew not what to do. At last he bethought himself
that he had slept in the arbour that was on the side of the hill, and then he went back to
look for his roll.
But all the way he went back, who can tell the sorrow of Christian's heart? Sometimes he
sighed, sometimes he wept, and often he chid himself for being so foolish as to fall
Thus therefore he went back, carefully looking on this side and on that all the way as he
went. For he hoped to find the roll that had been his comfort so many times in his
journey. He went back till he came again within sight of the arbour where he had sat and
slept, but that sight renewed his sorrow again, by reminding him how eagerly he had slept
there. And as he went towards the arbour, he sighed over his sleepiness, saying, "Oh,
foolish man that I was, why did I sleep in the daytime? oh, that I had not slept."
Now, by the time he was come to the
 arbour again, for a while he sat down and wept, but, at last, looking sorrowfully down
under the settle, he espied his roll, which with trembling haste he caught up.
But who can tell how joyful Christian was when he had got his roll again, or with what joy
and tears he began to go up the hill again. And, oh, how nimbly did he go up, yet before
he reached the top the sun went down.
Now Christian remembered the story that Mistrust and Timorous had told him, how they were
frightened with the sight of the lions. And he said to himself, "If these beasts meet me
in the dark, how shall I escape being by them torn in pieces?"
But while he was in this fright, he lifted up his eyes, and behold, there was a very
stately palace before him, the name of which was Beautiful, and it stood by the
So I saw in my dream that he made haste, that if possible he might get lodging there. Now
before he had gone far, he entered into
 a very narrow passage, and looking before him as he went, he espied two lions in the way.
The lions were chained, but Christian did not see the chains. Then he was afraid and
thought he would go back, but the porter at the lodge, whose name is Watchful, seeing
Christian stop, as if he would go back, cried, "Fear not the lions, for they are chained."
Then I saw that Christian went on till he came and stood before the gate where the porter
was. And Christian said to the porter, "Sir, what house is this? May I lodge here
The porter answered, "This house was built by the Lord of the hill, for the safety of
So Watchful the porter rang a bell, at the sound of which a grave and beautiful damsel
came out of the door. When she saw Christian she brought him into the Palace Beautiful,
and she and her sisters talked with him until supper was ready.
Now all their talk at table was about the
 Lord of the hill, and, by what they said, I knew that He had been a great Warrior, and
that He had fought and slain Death, but not without great danger to Himself, which made me
love Him the more.
They talked together till late at night, and after they had committed themselves to their
Lord for protection, they went to bed.
The room in which the pilgrim slept had a window opening towards the sunrising, and the
name of the room was Peace.
THEY WOULD TAKE HIM TO THE ARMOURY BEFORE HE LEFT THEM.
In the morning they all got up, and after some more talk, they told him that they would
take him to the armoury before he left them. So they did, and when he came out, he was
harnessed from head to foot, lest he should be attacked in the way.
Then Christian walked with his friends to the gate, and there he asked the porter if he
had seen any pilgrims pass.
The porter answered, "Yes, a pilgrim called Faithful has passed this way."
"Oh," said Christian, "I know him. He comes from the place where I was born. How far do
you think he has got?"
 "By this time he is below the hill," said the porter.
Then Christian began to go down the hill into the Valley of Humiliation, where it is
difficult not to slip. He went down very warily, yet he slipped once or twice.
Now in the valley Christian had a hard fight with a fiend called Apollyon. Apollyon was a
monster and hideous to behold. He was clothed with scales like a fish, he had wings like a
dragon, feet like a bear, and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion, and out of it came
fire and smoke. When he came up to Christian he looked at him with rage in his face, and
said, "Prepare thyself to die, for thou shalt go no farther." And he threw a flaming dart
at him, but Christian had a shield in his hand, which caught the dart, so that it did him
Then did Christian draw his sword, but Apollyon threw darts at him as thick as hail, and
wounded him in his head, his hand, and foot.
This great combat lasted half a day, till Christian was almost worn out.
 Then Apollyon came close to Christian, and wrestled with him and gave him a dreadful fall,
and Christian's sword flew out of his hand.
"I am sure of thee now," said Apollyon. But while he was taking a last blow to kill this
good man altogether, Christian nimbly stretched out his hand for his sword, and caught it.
Then he gave Apollyon a deadly thrust, and Apollyon spread his wings and sped him away, so
that Christian saw him no more.
In this combat no man could imagine, unless he had seen and heard as I did, what yelling
and roaring Apollyon made all the time of the fight. He spake like a dragon. On the other
side, sighs and groans burst from Christian's heart. I never saw him give so much as a
pleasant look, till he saw that he had wounded Apollyon with his two-edged sword. Then
indeed he did smile and look upward, but it was the dreadfullest fight that ever I saw.
So when the battle was over, Christian
 said, "I will give thanks to Him that did help me against Apollyon."
He also sat down in that place to eat and drink, so being refreshed, he again began his
journey, with his sword drawn in his hand, "For," said he, "I do not know if some other
enemy may not be at hand."
Now at the end of this valley was another, called the Valley of the Shadow of Death.
Through it Christian must go, because the way to the Celestial City lay through it. Now
this valley is a very lonely place. It is like a wilderness or a desert, full of pits. No
man dwells in it, and no man but a Christian passeth through it. Here Christian had a
worse time than even in his fight with Apollyon.
I saw then in my dream that when Christian had reached the borders of this valley, there
met him two men, making haste to go back.
Christian said to them, "Whither are you going?"
"Back, back," they cried, "as you will go, if you prize life or peace!"
 "Why, what is the matter?" said Christian.
"Matter!" said they. "We were going the way you are going, and we went as far as we dared.
But had we gone a little further we had not been here to bring the news to thee."
"But what have you met with?" said Christian.
"Why, we were almost in the Valley of the Shadow of Death, but by good chance we looked
before us and saw the danger before we came to it."
"But what have you seen?" said Christian.
"Seen!" said the men, "why, the valley itself was as dark as pitch. We also saw hobgoblins
and dragons, and we heard a continual howling and yelling as of people in great misery.
Death also doth always spread his wings over it. In a word, it is altogether dreadful,
being utterly without order."
"But," said Christian, "this is the way to the Celestial City."
"Be it your way, then; we will not choose it for ours." So they parted. Christian went
 on his way, but still with his sword drawn in his hand, lest he should be attacked.
I saw then in my dream, that as far as this valley reached, there was on the right hand a
very deep ditch. Again, behold, on the left hand, there was a very dangerous mire, into
which if a man falls he finds no bottom for his foot to stand on.
The pathway here was also exceeding narrow, and therefore Christian was the more
distressed. For when he sought in the dark to shun the ditch on the one hand, he was ready
to tumble over into the mire on the other, and when he sought to escape the mire, without
great carefulness he would nearly fall into the ditch.
Then he went on, and I heard him sigh bitterly. For besides these dangers, the pathway was
here so dark, that when he lifted up his foot to go forward, he knew not where, nor upon
what he should set it next.
About the middle of this valley I saw the mouth of hell to be, and it stood close to the
 "Now," thought Christian, "what shall I do?"
And ever and anon the flame and smoke came out in such abundance with sparks and hideous
noises, so that he was forced to put away his sword and betake himself to another weapon,
Then he cried out in my hearing, "O Lord, I beseech thee, deliver my soul." Thus he went
on a great while, yet still the flames would be rushing towards him. Also he heard doleful
voices and rushings to and fro, so that sometimes he thought he should be torn in pieces,
or trodden down like mire in the streets.
This frightful sight was seen, and these dreadful noises were heard by him for several
miles together. Then Christian came to a place where he thought he heard a company of
fiends coming forward to meet him, and he stopped and began to think what it would be best
for him to do.
Sometimes he thought he would go back, but again he thought he might be half way
 through the valley. So he resolved to go on, yet the fiends seemed to come nearer and
nearer. But when they were come almost close to him, he cried out in a loud voice, "I will
walk in the strength of the Lord God." Then the fiends went back and came no farther.
Now Christian thought he heard the voice of a man going before him, saying, "Though I walk
through the Valley of the Shadow of Death, I will fear none ill, for Thou art with me."
Then he was glad, for he thought that some one who feared God was in this valley, as well
as himself, and he hoped to overtake him and have company by and by.
Now morning being come, he looked back to see by the light of day what dangers he had gone
through in the night. So he saw more plainly the ditch that was on the one hand, and the
mire that was on the other, also how narrow the way was that lay between them both. He
saw, too, the hobgoblins and dragons, but all afar off, for after break of day they came
 About this time the sun was rising, and this was a great help to Christian, for you must
know that though the first part of the Valley of the Shadow of Death was dangerous, yet
this second part, through which he had to go, was, if possible, far more dangerous. For,
from the place where he now stood, even to the end of the valley, the way was all along so
full of snares, traps, and nets here, so full of pits, pitfalls, and deep holes down
there, that if it had been dark, he would almost surely have been lost, but as I said just
now, the sun was rising. In this light, therefore, he came to the end of the valley.
Now as Christian went on his way, he came to a little hill, and going up he looked forward
and saw Faithful before him. Then said Christian, "Stay, and I will be your companion."
And when he overtook Faithful they went very lovingly on together, and talked of all that
had happened to them in their pilgrimage.
 Then I saw in my dream that when they got out of the wilderness they saw a town before
them, and the name of that town was Vanity, and at the town there was a fair kept, called
Vanity Fair. It was kept all the year long.
At this fair there were sold houses, lands, trades, husbands, wives, children, silver,
gold, pearls, and precious stones. And, moreover, at this fair, there were at all times
cheats and jugglers and knaves and rogues.
Now the way to the Celestial City lay just through this town, so the pilgrims had to go
through the fair.
The Prince of princes Himself, when here, went through this town to his own country, and
that on a fair-day too. And, I think, it was Beelzebub the chief lord of this fair that
invited the Prince to buy of his vanities. Beelzebub even said he would have made Him lord
of the fair, if He would have done him reverence as He went through the town. Yea, because
the Prince was so great a
 person, Beelzebub took Him from street to street and showed Him all his kingdoms, that he
might, if possible, tempt the Prince to buy some of his vanities. But the Blessed One did
not wish any of these vanities, and therefore left the town without spending so much as
one farthing upon these vanities.
AT THE TOWN THERE WAS A FAIR KEPT, CALLED VANITY FAIR.
Now these pilgrims, Christian and Faithful, as I said, had to go through this fair.
Well, so they did, but behold, whenever they entered into the fair, it and the town itself
were in a hubbub about them. For the pilgrims were clothed with raiment that was very
different from the raiment of any that traded in that fair. The people gazed upon
Christian and Faithful and called them outlandish men.
Then also, they wondered at the pilgrims' speech, as few could understand what they said,
for they spoke the language of the Celestial City. But those that kept the fair spoke the
language of the city of Vanity Fair, and they could not understand one another.
 Now when these pilgrims would not buy their wares and would not even look at them, the
sellers were angry and mocked these men, and some called on others to smite them.
At last the master of the fair told his men to question the pilgrims. And when Christian
and Faithful told the men that they were strangers in the world and were going to the
Celestial City, the men thought they were mad. Therefore they took them and beat them and
threw mud at them, and then they put them in a cage to be a show to the people at the
But when they were tired of mocking them, these two pilgrims were again examined and
charged as guilty of the great disturbance in the fair. So they beat them pitifully, and
hanged irons upon them, and led them in chains up and down the fair. Then Christian and
Faithful behaved so wisely and patiently, that the others were still more angry, and said
they would put these men to death.
 Therefore, after a trial, Faithful was brought out, to do with him according to their law.
And first they scourged him, then they buffeted him, then they stoned him with stones,
then they pricked him with their swords, and last of all they burned him to ashes at the
Now I saw behind the people a chariot and a couple of horses waiting for Faithful, who was
taken by it through the clouds, the nearest way to the Celestial City.
Then was Christian sent back to the prison, where he dwelt for a time, till he escaped and
went again on his way. But he did not go alone, for there was one whose name was Hopeful,
who left the town of Vanity, and was a companion to Christian in his pilgrimage.
They went on their way till they came to a pleasant river. Now their way lay just along
the bank of the river, and Christian and his companion walked there with great delight.
They drank also of the river, and
 ate of the fruit that grew on the trees by its bank.
On either side of the river was also a meadow, very beautiful with lilies, and it was
green all the year long. In this meadow they lay down and slept, for here they might lie
Now I beheld in my dream that they had not journeyed far, when the river and the way
parted, and at this they were very sorry, yet they dare not go out of the way.
A little before them was a meadow and a stile to go over into it. Then said Christian, "If
this meadow lies along by our path, let us go over." He went to the stile to see, and
behold, a path lay along-side of the way, on the other side of the fence.
"That is as I wish," said Christian. "Come, good Hopeful, and let us go over."
"But," said Hopeful, "what if this path should lead us out of the way?"
"That is not likely," said the other. "Look, it goes along by the wayside." So Hopeful,
 being persuaded by Christian, went after him over the stile. When they had gone over and
had got into the path, they found it very easy for their feet. And as they looked before
them they saw a man walking as they did, and his name was Vain-confidence. So they called
after him, and asked where this way led.
He said, "To the Celestial City."
"Look," said Christian to Hopeful, "did I not tell you so? You see, we are right after
all." So they followed Vain-confidence, and he went before them.
But behold, the night came on, and it was very dark, so that they that went behind lost
sight of him that went before.
Vain-confidence then went on, not seeing the way before him, and fell into a deep pit
which was there. This pit was made by the Prince of those grounds on purpose, to catch
such foolish men as Vain-confidence. He, then, fell into the pit and was dashed to pieces
with his fall.
Now Christian and Hopeful heard him
 fall, so they called to know what was the matter, but there was none to answer, only they
heard a groaning.
Then said Hopeful, "Where are we now?" But Christian was silent, for he began to be afraid
that he had led Hopeful out of the way.
Now it began to rain and thunder and lighten in a very dreadful manner, and the river
flowed over the banks.
And Hopeful groaned, "Oh that I had kept on my way."
By this time the waters were greatly risen, so that to go back was very dangerous.
Yet they tried to go back, but it was so dark, and the flood was so high, that as they
went they were nearly drowned nine or ten times, and they could not reach the stile again
Wherefore at last, coming to a little shelter, they sat down, but being weary they fell
Now there was, not far from the place where they lay, a castle, called Doubting
 Castle, and the owner of the castle was Giant Despair, and it was in his grounds the
pilgrims were now sleeping. Wherefore the giant, getting up early, and walking up and down
in his fields, caught Christian and Hopeful asleep.
Then with a grim and surly voice he woke them, and asked them what they were doing in his
They told him they were pilgrims and had lost their way.
The giant said, "You have trampled on my ground, and slept on it, and therefore you must
go along with me." So they were forced to go, because he was stronger than they. Also they
said very little, for they knew they had done wrong.
The giant therefore drove them before him, and put them into his castle, into a very dark
dungeon. Here, then, they lay, from Wednesday morning till Saturday night, without one bit
of bread or drop of drink, or light, or any one to speak to them.
THE OWNER OF THE CASTLE WAS GIANT DESPAIR.
Now Giant Despair had a wife, and he told
 her he had taken a couple of men prisoners, because they were sleeping on his grounds.
Then she told him that, when he arose in the morning, he should beat them without mercy.
So Giant Despair got a cudgel, and went down to the dungeon and beat Christian and Hopeful
fearfully, so that they could not move. Then the giant left them, and they spent their
time in sighs and bitter tears.
The next night Giant Despair again talked to his wife, and she said, "Tell your prisoners
to kill themselves, for they will never escape from the dungeon."
So when morning came, the giant went to them in a surly manner, and seeing they still
ached with the stripes he had given them, he told them to poison themselves, for they
would never get away from him in any other way.
But they asked the giant to let them go.
That made him so angry that he rushed on them and would have killed them, but he fell into
a fit and lost for a time the use of his
 hand, wherefore he withdrew and left them as before.
Well, towards evening the giant went down again to the dungeon to see if his prisoners had
followed his advice and poisoned themselves. He found them alive, but because of their
wounds and for want of bread and water they could do little but breathe.
Now at night the giant's wife said: "Take the prisoners into the castle yard to-morrow,
and show them the bones and skulls of those prisoners you have already killed. Tell them
that in a week you will tear them to pieces, as you have torn your other prisoners."
When the morning was come, the giant went to them again and took them into the castle
yard, and showed them all his wife had bidden him.
"These," said he, "were pilgrims once as you are, but they walked in my grounds as you
have done. And when I thought fit, I tore them in pieces, and so within ten days I will do
to you. Get you down to your
 den again," and he beat them all the way there.
That night, about midnight, Christian and Hopeful began to pray, and they prayed till dawn
Now just at dawn Christian spoke in sudden amazement. "How foolish we are to lie here,
when we might be free after all. I have a key in my pocket called Promise, that will, I am
persuaded, open any lock in Doubting Castle."
Then said Hopeful, "That is good news, pull it out of your pocket and try."
Christian pulled it out and began to try the dungeon door, and the bolt, as he turned the
key, yielded, and the door flew open, and Christian and Hopeful both came out. Then he
went to the door that led to the castle yard, and with his key opened that door also,
after that he went to the iron gate, for that must be opened too. That lock was terribly
hard, yet the key did open it.
Then they thrust open the gate to make their escape in haste, but, as it opened, that
 gate made such a creaking that it waked Giant Despair, who got up hastily to follow his
prisoners, but he could not run after them, for again he took one of his fits.
Then Christian and Hopeful went on till they came to the King's highway and so were safe,
because they were out of the giant's grounds.
Now when they had got over the stile, they began to wonder what they should do to keep
other pilgrims from falling into the hands of Giant Despair. So they agreed to put up
there a pillar, and to write on it this sentence: "Over this stile is the way to Doubting
Castle, which is kept by Giant Despair, who despiseth the King of the Celestial Country
and seeks to destroy His holy pilgrims."
Many pilgrims, that came after, read what was written and escaped Giant Despair.
They then went on till they came to the Delectable Mountains. These mountains belonged to
the Lord of the steep hill which Christian had climbed.
 So they went up these mountains to behold the gardens and orchards, the vineyards and
fountains. There, too, they drank and washed themselves and ate the fruit of the
Now there were Shepherds on the mountains, who welcomed them lovingly and showed them many
wonders. First they took them to the top of a hill which was very steep on one side, and
bid them look down to the bottom.
So Christian and Hopeful looked down, and saw at the bottom several men dashed all to
pieces by a fall that they had had from the top.
"These," said the Shepherds, "are for an example to others to be careful not to clamber
too high, or to come too near the brink of this mountain." The name of this mountain was
Then the Shepherds took them to the top of another mountain, and the name of it was
Caution, and the Shepherds bid them look afar off.
 When the pilgrims did this, they saw, as they thought, several men walking up and down
among the tombs that were there. And they saw that the men were blind, because they
stumbled sometimes upon the tombs, and because they could not get out from among them.
Then said Christian, "What means this?"
The Shepherds then answered, "Did you see a little below these mountains a stile that led
into a meadow?"
They answered, "Yes."
"From that stile," said the Shepherds, "there goes a path that leads straight to Doubting
Castle, which is kept by Giant Despair. These men," and the Shepherds pointed to those
among the tombs, "came once on a pilgrimage as you do now. But when they came to the
stile, because the right way was rough, they went over it into the meadow. Here they were
taken by Giant Despair and cast into Doubting Castle. After they had been kept some time
in the dungeon, he at last did put out their eyes.
 Then he led them among those tombs, and left them to wander there till this very day."
Then Christian and Hopeful thought of their escape from Doubting Castle, and they looked
at one another with tears in their eyes. But yet they said nothing to the Shepherds.
Now I saw in my dream that the Shepherds brought them to another place, where was a door
in the side of a hill, and they opened the door and bid the pilgrims look in. They looked
in therefore and saw that within it was very dark and smoky. They also thought that they
heard there a rumbling noise as of fire, and a cry as of some in trouble.
Then said Christian, "What means this?" The Shepherds said, "This is a byway to hell."
And the Shepherds said one to another, "Let us show the pilgrims the gates of the
Celestial City, if they have skill to look through our glass."
 So they took Christian and Hopeful to the top of another high hill, called Clear, and gave
them the glass to look.
They tried to look, but the remembrance of that last thing the Shepherds had showed them
made their hands shake, so that they could not look steadily through the glass. Yet they
thought they saw something like the gate, and also some of the beauty of the place.
When they were about to depart, one of the Shepherds gave them a note of the way. Another
of them bid them beware when they met the Flatterer. The third bid them take heed that
they did not sleep upon the Enchanted Ground. And the fourth bid them "Godspeed." So I
awoke from my dream.
And I slept and dreamed again, and I saw the same two pilgrims going down the mountains
and along the highway.
They went on then till they came to a place where they saw another path that seemed to be
as straight as the way which they should go. And here they knew not which of the two to
take, for both seemed straight
 before them, therefore here they stood still to think.
And as they were thinking about the way, behold, a man, black of flesh, but covered with a
very light robe, came to them, and asked them why they stood there.
They answered they were going to the Celestial City, but knew not which of these ways to
"Follow me," said the man. "It is there I am going."
So they followed him in the path that had joined the way, and this path slowly turned, and
at last turned them so far from the City that they wished to go to, that in a little time
their faces were turned away from it. Yet they still followed him.
But by and by before they knew what had happened, he led them both into a net, in which
they were so entangled that they knew not what to do. Then the white robe fell off the
black man's back, and they knew that he was the Flatterer and had brought them into his
 Wherefore there they lay, crying some time, for they could not get themselves out. And as
they lay weeping in the net, they saw a Shining One coming toward them with a whip of
small cord in his hand. When he was come to the place where they were, he asked them
whence they came, and what they were doing there.
They told him that they were poor pilgrims going to Zion, but were led out of their way by
a black man clothed in white. "He bid us," said they, "follow him, for he was going
Then said the Shining One, "It is a Flatterer, that has clothed himself like an angel of
light." So he rent the net and let the men out. And he said to the pilgrims, "Follow me,"
and he led them back to the way which they had left when they followed the Flatterer.
The one with the whip then asked them where they slept last night.
They said, "With the Shepherds on the Delectable Mountains."
 He asked them if the Shepherds had not given them a note, telling them about the way.
They answered, "Yes," but they had forgotten to read it.
He asked them also if the Shepherds did not tell them to beware of the Flatterer.
They answered, "Yes," but they did not think that this man who spoke so well could be he.
Then I saw in my dream that the Shining One commanded them to lie down. And he took his
whip, and when he had whipped them he said, "As many as I love I rebuke and punish, be
careful therefore and repent."
This done, he bid them go on their way and take good heed to the other directions of the
So they thanked the Shining One for all his kindness, and went gladly along the right way.
Now I saw in my dream that when the pilgrims had got safely over the Enchanted Ground,
they entered a beautiful country
 where the air was very sweet and pleasant. Every day they heard continually the singing of
birds, and every day they saw the flowers appear in the earth. In this country the sun
shineth night and day, and here they were within sight of the City to which they went.
So I saw that as they went on, there met them two men in raiment that shone like gold,
also their faces shone as the light.
These men asked the pilgrims where they came from, and they told them. They also asked
them where they had lodged, what difficulties and dangers, what comforts and pleasures
they had met in the way, and they told them.
Then said the men that met them, "You have but two difficulties more to meet and then you
are in the City." So they all walked together till they came in sight of the gate.
THEY WERE WITHIN SIGHT OF THE CITY TO WHICH THEY WENT.
Now I saw that between them and the gate was a river, but there was no bridge to go over,
and the river was deep. At the sight of the river Christian and Hopeful
 were stunned, but the men that went with them said, "You must go through, or you cannot
come in at the gate."
The pilgrims then, especially Christian, began to be afraid, and looked this way and that
way, but could find no way by which to escape the river. Then they entered the river, and
Christian began to sink and to cry out to his friend Hopeful, saying, "I sink in deep
waters, the billows go over my head."
But Hopeful cheered Christian, and said he felt the ground under his feet. Yet a great
horror and darkness fell upon Christian, for he thought he should never reach the
Celestial City, and Hopeful had much difficulty to keep his friend's head above water.
Then I saw in my dream that at last Christian took courage, and soon he found ground to
stand upon, and the rest of the river was shallow. Thus they got over.
Now upon the bank of the river, on the other side, they saw the two shining men
 again, who waited there for them, and led them toward the gate.
The City stood upon a mighty hill, but the pilgrims went up that with ease, talking gladly
to their shining companions, and thus they came up to the gate.
And over the gate there were written in letters of gold, "Blessed are they that do the
King's Commandments and may enter in through the gates into the City."
I saw in my dream that these two men went in at the gate, and lo as they entered they were
transfigured. And they had raiment put on that shone like gold. They had harps given to
them to praise on, and crowns were given to them in token of honour.
Then I heard in my dream that all the bells in the City rang again for joy, and that it
was said, "Enter ye into the joy of your Lord."
Now just as the gates were opened to let in the men, I looked in after them, and behold,
the City shone like the sun, the
 streets also were paved with gold. And I heard many voices saying, "Holy, holy, holy is
And after that they shut up the gates, and when I had seen this, I wished I myself were
So I awoke, and behold it was a dream.
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