CÆSAR GIVES UP HIS TRIUMPH
 THE Senate and the nobles now began to fear the ambition of
Cæsar. And they were glad to give him the command of
the army in Spain, so that he might, for a time at
least, be away from Rome. They hoped that the people,
who were always fickle, would find a new favourite in
his absence, one whom they might be able to influence.
Already they knew that they could not move Cæsar to do
So in 61 B.C. Cæsar went to Spain. With new duties he
quickly developed new powers. There was now no time
spent in idle pleasures, or even on the more serious
joy of composing poems. His whole energy was devoted
to his soldiers. Soon he had added to the numbers of
his army, and marched into districts as yet unconquered
Everywhere he went he was victorious, and when he
returned to Rome it was to claim a triumph.
Now he had arrived before the city gates just in time
for the election of Consuls. To stand for the
Consulship it was necessary to enter the city and
proclaim oneself a candidate. To enjoy a triumph it
was necessary to stay outside the walls until the
Senate has decreed that a triumph was deserved.
Cæsar was thus in a strait, and of this his enemies
were not slow to take advantage. For when he asked the
Senate to allow him to stand for the Consulship without
entering the city, it refused. And more than that, it
would not decide that he should enjoy a triumph until
it was too late to have it and stand for the Consulship
Which should he give up? Cæsar himself, being wise,
 had no doubt. But the Senate and the nobles hoped that
he would choose the triumph. That was a glory that
would soon be forgotten, while if he became Consul he
would be more powerful than they cared to think.
But Cæsar gave up the triumph and proclaimed himself a
candidate for the Consulship. And his enemies were
forced to look on as he walked to the assembly of the
people between Pompey and Crassus, the two most
powerful men in Rome. With their support he was
elected Consul with unusual honours.
It was now that Pompey, Crassus, and Cæsar formed the
secret union which became known as the First
The laws the Triumvirate brought forward were framed
chiefly to please the people and to win their support.
One was regarding the vexed question of allotments of
land for Pompey's veterans, another was about the
distribution of corn.
When some of the senators and
the Optimates tried to hinder these measures from
becoming law, Pompey took an armed force to the Campus,
to keep order it was said. But every one knew that the
real reason was to make the voters afraid to oppose the
A year passed and Cæsar's Consulship came to an end.
He then demanded that the Senate should give him Gaul
as his province. As a rule a province was allotted to
an officer for a year, but Cæsar insisted that he
should have Gaul for five years.
The Senate, again thinking it would be well that he
should be absent from Rome, granted his request. And
so in 58 B.C. Cæsar left Rome to begin his new duties
But before he left the city he arranged that the chief
offices of the State should be held by friends of his
own, so that his enemies might not grow too powerful
during his absence.
 Cicero had shown himself no friend to Cæsar, and he
was now forced either to leave Rome or be brought to
trial for executing the four Catilinarian conspirators.
Rather than be brought to trial Cicero went into exile.
But in sixteen months he was again in Rome, trying to
win Pompey from his secret agreement with Cæsar.