THE FOUNDING OF NEW JERSEY
 OUT of New York another state had been carved. For before New York
had been taken from the Dutch, before Nicholls had so much as reached
the shores of America, James, Duke of York, had already given part
of the land which he did not yet possess to two of his friends, Lord
Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. Sir George had been Governor of
the Island of Jersey in the English Channel. When the Revolution
broke out in England he had defended the island stoutly against
the soldiers of the Parliament, and had kept the King's flag flying
on British soil longer than any other man. So now that the Stuarts
were restored King Charles remembered Carteret's loyalty, and he
called this tract of land New Jersey in his honour. For this great
estate Sir George and Lord Berkeley had to pay only ten shillings
a year and a peppercorn.
Nicholls of course knew nothing about these grants, and when he
heard of them he was grieved that the Duke should have given away
so much valuable land. He had besides allowed some Puritans from
New England and others to settle on the land after making agreements
with the natives. And this led to trouble later on.
Meanwhile Sir George lost no time in settling his land in his own
way. He at once sent out some colonists and Philip Carteret, a
cousin of his own, as Governor.
On a summer day in 1665 Philip Carteret landed. He set up no
crosses, and made no prayers, but with a hoe over his shoulder he
marched at the head of his men, as a sign that he
 meant to live
and work among them. A little way inland he chose a spot on which
to build his town and called it Elizabeth, in honour of Sir George
Things went well enough until the time came for rents to be paid.
Then many of the settlers, who had been there before Carteret
came, refused to pay. For they said they had bought their land from
the Indians, and owed nothing to Sir George. But as the Governor
insisted on his right they rose in rebellion. They held a meeting
at Elizabethtown, deposed Philip Carteret, and chose James Carteret
a weak and bad son of Sir George, as their Governor. Seeing nothing
else for it Philip went home and laid his case before Sir George and
the Duke. They both supported him, so the rebels submitted, James
Carteret went off to New York, and Philip again became Governor of
Meanwhile Lord Berkeley had grown tired of all the trouble, and
he sold his part of New Jersey to some Quakers. So henceforth New
Jersey was divided into two, East Jersey and West Jersey, East
Jersey belonging to Carteret, West Jersey to the Quakers.
In 1680 Sir George Carteret died, and his part of New Jersey was
also sold to Quakers, one of whom was William Penn, afterwards to
become famous in American history. Soon after this New Jersey fell
on very troublous times, of which it would take too long to tell.
But at length the two Jerseys were again made into one, and in the
time of Anne the colony became a Royal Province. Then for thirty-six
years it was united to New York, but in 1738 was again divided and
has remained a separate state ever since.