WAR WITH THE INDIANS IN NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA
 AT first there had been no intention of making two provinces of
Carolina. But the country was so large and the settlements made
so far apart that very soon it became divided into North and South
Carolina. The first settlements made in North Carolina were made
round Albemarle Sound, and those of South Carolina at Charleston.
One Governor was supposed to rule both states, but sometimes each
had a governor. And in all the early years there was trouble between
the governors and the people. Sometimes the governors were good
men, but more often they were rascals who cared for nothing but
their own pockets. So we hear of revolutions, of governors being
deposed and imprisoned, of colonists going to England to complain
of their governors, of governors going to complain of the colonists.
But far worse than the quarrel between people and governor were
the troubles with the Indians. Many thousands of white people had
by this time settled in the Carolinas, and the Redman saw himself
year by year being driven further and further from his old hunting
grounds; so year by year his anger grew. At first he had been
friendly to the white man because he brought with him beads and
copper ornaments and "fire water." But now he began to hate him.
At length the Indians in North Carolina plotted to kill all the
white people. Many tribes of Indians dwelt round the settlements,
but the chief among them were the
Tus-  caroras. These Tuscaroras
now arranged with all the other tribes that early on the morning
before the new moon they should all with one accord, tomahawk and
firebrand in hand, fall upon the Pale-faces and wipe them utterly
from the face of the earth.
From tribe to tribe the word was passed till hundreds knew the
secret. But the Redman is silent and crafty, and neither by sign
nor word did he betray it to the Pale-faces.
Suspecting nothing, with perfect faith in their friendship, the
white people allowed the Indians to come and go freely in their
settlements. Then one night a great many appeared, asking
for food. Still the white people had no suspicion of evil, and many
Indians were allowed even to spend the night in their houses.
The Pale-faces slept peacefully, but for the Redmen there was
little rest. They waited impatiently for the dawn. At length the
first streaks of light shivered across the sky, and from the woods
came a loud fierce war whoop. It was answered by the Indians within
the settlements, and with tomahawk in one hand and firebrand in
the other they fell upon the still sleeping settlers.
They spared neither man nor woman, neither the old nor the young;
and when they could find no more to slay they set fire to the houses.
Then those who had hidden themselves were forced to flee from the
flames, only to fall beneath the tomahawk. The Swiss and Germans
round New Berne and the Huguenots of Bath were the chief sufferers.
But the wonder is that any white men escaped. For their cruel
work at an end, and the settlements nought but flaming ruins, the
Indians marched through the woods seeking any who had escaped,
gathering at length to a spot arranged beforehand. Here they drank
"fire water," rejoicing savagely over their victory. Then drunk
 brandy and with blood they staggered forth again to continue
their horrible labours. For three days the slaughter lasted, for
three days the forests rang with terrifying war cries, and village
after village was laid in ashes. Then too weary and too drunk for
further effort, the Indians ceased their awful work.
At first the white people had been utterly stunned by the suddenness
and horror of the uprising, and they were quite incapable of
suppressing it by themselves. But soon help came, both from South
Carolina and Virginia. Friendly Indians too, who wished to prove
to the Pale-faces that they had had no part in the massacre, joined
Hundreds of the Indians were slain in battle, others were driven from
fort to fort. But not for two years were they thoroughly subdued.
Then at length, finding themselves no match for the white men, those
who were left fled from the province and joined the Five Nations
in New York, making from this time forward Six Nations.
In South Carolina too there was war with the Indians. The Yamassees
had been among the Indians who marched from South Carolina to fight
against their brothers, the Tuscaroras. Yet a little later they
too rose against the Pale-faces.
Several causes led to the war, but it was chiefly brought about by
the Spaniards who had a settlement at St. Augustine to the south
of Carolina. They hated the British, and although the two countries
were now at peace the Spaniards did all they could to injure the
British colonies in America and elsewhere. So now they sympathised
with the Yamassees, both with their real and imaginary grievances,
and encouraged them to rise against the British.
Secretly and silently then the Redmen laid their plans. But this
time the war did not burst forth entirely without warning. For
when the Redman has truly given his faith and love nothing makes
 Now there was a chieftain named Sanute who had given his friendship
to a Scotsman named Fraser, and he could not bear to think of his
friend being slaughtered. So one day Sanute came to Fraser's wife
to warn her.
"The British are all bad," he said, "they will all go to an
evil place. The Yamassees also will go there if they allow these
Pale-faces to remain longer in the land. So we will slay them all.
We only wait for the sign of a bloody stick which the Creeks will
send. Then the Creeks, the Yamassees, and many other nations will
join with the Spaniards to slay the British. So fly in all haste
to Charleston. And if your own boat is not large enough I will lend
you my canoe."
Mrs. Fraser was very much frightened when she heard Sanute speak
like this. But when she told her husband he laughed at her fears.
The idea that the Spaniards should join with the Indians against
the British seemed to him quite absurd.
"How can the Spaniards go to war with us," he said, "while they
are at peace with Great Britain?"
"I know not," replied Sanute." But the Spanish Governor has said
that soon there will be a great war between the British and the
Spaniards, and while we attack on land he will send great ships to
block up the harbours, so that neither man nor woman may escape."
Then laying his hand upon his heart Sanute implored his white friends
to flee with all haste. "But if you are determined to stay," he
added, "then I will take on myself one last office of friendship,
and so that you may not be tortured I will slay you with my own
Still Fraser doubted. But his wife was so terrified that he yielded
to her entreaties. And gathering his goods together he got into
his canoe with his wife and child, and paddled away to Charleston.
Unfortunately in the hurry of departure Fraser either
 forgot to warn
his friends in the plantation near him, or they, being warned,
disregarded it; and a few days later the slaughter began. At
daybreak the signal was given, and at the sound of the war whoop
the seemingly peaceful Indians were turned suddenly into raging
demons who, with tomahawk and torch in hand, sowed destruction
and death around. So the land was filled with blood and wailing,
pleasant homesteads were laid in ruins, and only heaps of smouldering
ashes marked where they had been.
But Governor Craven was one of the best governors of his time. He
was a man of action and courage as well as a wise ruler, and he
quickly gathered an army with which to march against the savages.
The North Carolinians too, remembering gratefully the help which
South Carolina had given to them in their need, sent men. Soon
the Yamassees, and their friends were defeated and driven from the
province. They fled across the border and took refuge in Spanish
territory, where they were received with great rejoicing. They might
indeed have been heroes returning from a victorious campaign, for
the church bells were rung and salutes were fired in their honour.
The Yamassees were crushed, but they were not utterly conquered,
from henceforth their hearts were filled with hatred against all
the Carolinians. This hatred the Spaniards did their best to keep
alive. They supplied the Indians with weapons, and made them valiant
with "fire water." Thus encouraged they broke across the borders in
small scalping parties, seizing and slaying, often with unspeakable
tortures, all those who dwelt in lonely places. These frays were
so unceasing, and so deadly, that at length hardly any one dared
live in all the border region.
Meanwhile the war against the Indians had cost a great deal of
money. And as the Lords Proprietor made a good deal of money out
of the colony, the settlers thought they might as well bear some
of the expense also. So they
 sent messengers home to arrange this
matter. But the Lords Proprietor seemed to care little about their
possessions except as a means of making money. And they refused to
pay any of the cost of the war. This made the settlers angry.
They had never liked the rule of the Lords Proprietor; now they
were heartily tired of it and they refused to stand it longer. King
William III was now upon the throne, and the settlers asked him to
make South Carolina a Crown Colony. To this King William agreed.
Ten years later North Carolina also became a Crown Colony, and the
two Carolinas from henceforth continued to be separate states.