THE GOLD CITY
 ABOUT a year after freedom had been given back to the South African Republic a discovery was made which has perhaps
changed the fortunes of South Africa more than any other. This was the discovery in the Republic of the
richest gold mines in the world.
For many years gold had been found and worked in South Africa, but it was in such small quantities and so hard
to get at that few people went to these gold-fields. But when the Witwatersrand mines were discovered, about
forty miles from Pretoria, people from all parts of the world flocked to them.
The mines there could not be worked like those of Australia or California, for machinery was needed to dig out
and crush the rock in which the gold was embedded. This machinery cost far too much money for one man to buy.
So men joined together, and many companies were formed. It was a time of great excitement, for some companies
succeeded and the men grew rich, others failed and the men who had spent all that they had in the hope of
making more became beggars.
And meanwhile a new and great town arose in the Transvaal, a town which grew as if by magic to be the largest
in all South Africa. This new town of Johannesburg was at first only a huge camp. Everywhere white tents and
ugly corrugated iron houses sprang up. But
 soon these were swept away, and beautiful buildings, laid out in streets and squares, with parks and gardens,
took their place.
This beautiful city, with glittering palaces, with theatres, schools, hospitals, and churches, with telephones
and electric light, and everything that a great city needs, grew up as if by enchantment in a country where
all around there were only simple farmers, living in two-roomed cottages. It grew up hundreds of miles from a
railway, for in all the Orange Free State and the South African Republic there was no railroad. The machinery
for the mines, the stone and wood, iron and bricks for the building of the city had all to be dragged hundreds
of miles in ox-carts. But no difficulty stopped the growth of the city, and in the solitudes of Africa one of
the brightest and gayest cities in the world sprang to life. Soon railways were laid down, and in a few years
Johannesburg was connected with Natal, Cape Colony, and Portuguese East Africa, and from the mines a constant
stream of gold flowed out to all the world.
This discovery of gold brought a great deal of money to the Republic. In Johannesburg the farmers found a
great market for their produce, and in many ways the country grew prosperous. But with new prosperity new
troubles arose. Until now the President had been the ruler of simple farmer folk. He or they knew little of
books or business, cared little for the outside world and its fierce struggle for wealth.
But now, suddenly, the President found himself called upon to rule a new people, a people keen for business,
eager for "progress," impatient of his slow farmer ways. Most of these men who had rushed to Johannesburg were
British subjects, and the Boers looked upon them with distrust. They began to fear again for the liberty of
 country. So they called these people Uitlanders, that is, Outlanders or strangers, and made it very difficult
for them to get any share in the ruling of the country. This made the Outlanders angry, for they wanted to
have a share in the governing, and to manage things better than the slow, old-fashioned Boers.
But the Boers said, "No, it is our country. We did not ask you to come, we do not want you to stay, and if you
don't like it, you can go away again." But of course the Outlanders did not want to go. They wanted to stay
and make money out of the gold mines.
Many things in the South African republic were really badly managed. The Outlanders had some grievances, but
the more they complained the more suspicious did the Boers grow. Boer and Briton did not understand each
other, and as the years went on anger and bitterness deepened and darkened on both sides.