|The Story of Europe|
|by H. E. Marshall|
|Presents the broader movements of European history, emphasizing the main factors which have gone into the formation and development of the various European states from the fall of the Roman Empire to the Reformation. The history of England is included only when that country plays a prominent part in the politics of Europe. A full treatment of the period immediately following the fall of the Roman Empire is given, since that period provides the necessary key to future developments. For smoother reading, dates are relegated to the margin for the most part. Maps, timelines, and genealogy charts of the various royal houses of Europe contribute to making this book an excellent resource for the study of the Middle Ages in Europe. Ages 14-18 |
THE MOORS DRIVEN OUT OF SPAIN—SPAIN BEGINS TO COUNT AMONG THE NATIONS OF EUROPE
 EARLY in the eighth century the Arabs overran Spain and took almost complete possession of it (see Chapter VII). But
although Arabia was the birthplace of Mohammed, the Arabians were less fanatical than any other of the
followers of the Prophet. They did not insist on a wholesale conversion of the conquered people. For they
loved the Christian's gold more than his conversion. So on condition of paying a tax Christians were allowed
to follow their own religion. Nearly all the nobles accepted this condition, but many of the people also
became Mohammedan, especially the slaves. For by professing Mohammedanism a slave earned freedom.
But although nearly all Spain came under the domination of the Arabs, a small portion did not. In the extreme
north-west, among the Asturian mountains, a few of the inhabitants held out against the invaders. Mountains
have always been the last resort of a conquered people, and the Mohammedans were never able to dislodge this
remnant from their strongholds. As years passed, indeed, these Spaniards, as we may now call them,
strengthened their hold upon the north. Bit by bit they drove the Saracens southward, and at length several
little kingdoms were formed, such as Navarre, Leon, Aragon, and Castile, the last taking its name from the
many castles built to defend it against the Saracens.
These kingdoms were all small, and all disunited, but by
 degrees, through marriages between the various royal families and in other ways, several became united in the
twelfth century into the kingdom of Aragon, and in the thirteenth century eight little states were united into
the kingdom of Leon and Castile.
In the twelfth century also, under Alfonso I, Portugal became a kingdom with a territory less than half its
present size. But both Alfonso and his successors fought persistently against the Saracens, and in 1250
Alfonso III conquered what is now the southern portion of Portugal from them, so that from the middle of the
thirteenth century the boundaries of Portugal have been very much what they are to-day.
After the union of the various small Spanish states into kingdoms the conquest of Spain from the Moors went on
rapidly, and by 1265 all that was left to them was Granada in the extreme south. And even that was not a free
kingdom, for the king of Granada owned the king of Castile as overlord.
For more than two hundred years from this time the king of Aragon and the king of Castile ruled over Spain
side by side. But as yet there was little sense of Spanish nationality. The two kings were rivals and often
enemies. Their kingdoms were merely a conglomeration of small states, the inhabitants of which spoke different
languages and had little in common with each other. There were among them Moriscoes or converted Saracens,
Marranes or converted Jews, and Mozarabes, Spaniards who had become Mohammedans. To reconcile all these and
make them into one nation was no easy matter, yet slowly Spain moved towards nationality.
Ferdinand and Isabella
At length in 1469 Isabella of Castile married her cousin Ferdinand of Aragon, and thus the two crowns were
 But the union of the crowns alone did not satisfy Ferdinand and Isabella. They desired true national union,
and they became persuaded that the only way to ensure this was to unite all their peoples into one national
Church. In order to do this the Inquisition was introduced into Spain.
The Inquisition was a tribunal of the Church called into being to find out and punish all heretics. It grew up
gradually, and was not instituted with all its cruel methods until the thirteenth century. It was a terrible
institution, and one from which there was neither appeal nor escape. Every one accused before the tribunal was
presupposed guilty, and those who would not at once confess their guilt were tortured until they did. Fines
and imprisonment, the forced undertaking of pilgrimages, or the wearing of opprobrious garments were the
lightest punishments to which the guilty were condemned, while hundreds and thousands were burned to death
with horrible cruelty.
Until the Inquisition was introduced, Spain, with its strangely mixed population, had been more tolerant in
the matter of religion than any country in Europe. In their day of power the Moors and Saracens had been
tolerant. When their day of power came, the Christians also were tolerant and allowed both Jews and
Mohammedans to follow their own religion in peace.
Zealous religious fervour was not at this time a characteristic of Spain. The Spaniards took no part in the
Crusades, and none of the rulers of the many little Spanish states appeared before the walls of Jerusalem.
This was partly due to the fact that during the period of the Crusades the Spaniards were busy fighting the
Saracens at their own doors, reconquering Spain from them.
But these wars between Spaniards and Saracens were national rather than religious. The Spaniards desired to
 free Spain from the usurper rather than to convert the infidel. So when the Saracens were conquered they were
left more or less in peace to follow their own religion. The rulers, indeed, openly recognized the religious
rights of their Mohammedan subjects, and one of the kings of Castile took the title of Emperor of all the
Spains and of the Men of the Two Religions. But the popes had long looked upon this tolerance as wicked
laxness, and at length Isabella, who was deeply and earnestly religious, was persuaded to allow the
Inquisition to be set up in Castile.
In everything else Isabella was a great and wise ruler. But in the eyes of later generations this one act has
dimmed the splendour of her reign. She must, however, be judged not as a ruler of to-day but as a ruler of the
fifteenth century. All Europe was full of religious fanaticism. To the noblest and purest of Churchmen
persecution seemed a glorious work for Christ. How then should a mere woman set her tender heart in opposition
to their wisdom. So for the glory of God, and for the exaltation of the Catholic Faith, Isabella signed the
deed by which the fires of persecution were lit in Spain—fires which were not to be extinguished for
hundreds of years. Even in the beginning of the eighteenth century the "question by torture" was still in use,
and only in 1834 was the Inquisition finally and utterly abolished.
Besides uniting all Spain into one Church, Ferdinand and Isabella determined to wrest the last inch of the
soil from the Mohammedans, and they declared war against the king of Granada. The queen threw herself heart
and soul into this war. She appeared in the field fully dressed in armour, encouraging the troops with brave
words and reviewing them frequently. She visited every part of the camp, and saw that the soldiers were
provided not only with necessaries but with comforts. Above all, she cared for the sick and the wounded.
 By her orders large tents known as the Queen's tents were set up in the camps. These were furnished with
nurses and medicines, at her expense, and there the sick and wounded could find rest and care. This is
believed to be the first attempt at a camp hospital.
Fall of Granada
For ten years the war with the Moors dragged on, the Spaniards often meeting with reverses. But at length
civil war broke out in Granada itself. Weakened by strife within as well as war without, the Moors could no
longer stand their ground, and on November 25, 1491, Granada yielded. The last Moorish king gave up the keys
of the Alhambra Palace to the conquerors. Then, mounting his horse, he rode away. Upon a hill above the city
of Granada he drew rein, and with tears in his eyes turned to look for the last time upon his lost capital.
"Yea," cried his mother scornfully, as she watched him, "weep like a woman for the loss of thy kingdom, since
thou couldst not defend it like a man." Crushed by his foes, despised by his friends, the Moor bowed his head,
and rode forth into exile.
The long struggle between Moors and Spaniards which had lasted for nearly eight hundred years was thus ended.
Spain from the Pyrenees to the Mediterranean was now under Christian rule, and for their zeal in the cause of
the faith the pope bestowed upon Ferdinand and Isabella the title of the Catholic Kings. This title is to-day
still borne by the king of Spain.
Up to this time, because of the continual warfare with the Moors, Spain had entered but little into the life
of Europe. It had been untouched by the great movements which had helped to develop the other great states of
western Europe. The feudal system had never gained a footing there; as a nation it had never taken part in the
Crusades, and had
 remained unmoved by the tremendous religious enthusiasm which had swept over other countries.
Now late in the day that enthusiasm awoke in the Spanish rulers, and was turned to religious fanaticism and
intolerance. With the passing of years this fanaticism increased until, from being the most liberal, Spain
became the most intolerant of Catholic states. Persecution began with the Jews.They were offered the hard
choice of denying their faith or of leaving the country, and many chose the latter course. Next came the turn
of the remaining Moors, they being offered the same hard choice; most of them, like the Jews, chose to go into
exile rather than deny their faith. The departure of both these peoples was a loss to Spain. For they were
clever and industrious, and much of the trade and any manufactures there were lay in their hands.
This was all the greater loss as now Spain began to be of importance in Europe. The royal family was allied by
marriage with other ruling houses of Europe, and Ferdinand is said to have been the first monarch to send
resident ambassadors to the courts of other states. By this means friendly intercourse with neighbouring
countries was established and maintained, international trade was encouraged, and as the custom increased,
quarrels which before could only have been wiped out in blood were settled by negotiation. And however much
the maintaining of ambassadors at foreign courts has been abused in later times, in the beginning it was a
step towards international understanding and towards lessening the frequency of wars.
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