TREACHERY AND MASSACRE
 IN the afternoon of the day in which Magellan was killed a message was sent to the victorious
Mactans, imploring them to surrender his body to the Spaniards for burial. They were
offered as much merchandise as they desired in exchange; but the chief, Chilapulapu,
returned the haughty reply that they would not give him up for all the riches in the
world, as he intended to keep him as a memorial of their triumph. At the same time, it is
said, he sent a messenger to the King of Cebu, threatening him with death, and all his
people, unless he joined with him and his brother chiefs in slaughtering the Spaniards and
seizing their vessels.
The Malays are prone to treachery, and it is possible that Cebu's ruler had already
planned the dark deed which he later
 executed; but another story relates that it was suggested by Magellan's interpreter,
Enrique, who, having received a slight wound in the fight, was nursing it in his bunk,
when Duarte Barbosa approached him with a demand to go ashore with a message for the king.
He addressed him at first gently, having a feeling of sympathy on account of his wound;
but when the interpreter answered that he was no longer a slave, his master being dead,
Barbosa burst forth: "What? No longer a slave, and Dona Beatrix, my sister, and the
Admiral's widow, still living? Yet a slave art thou, ingrate, and if thou dost not do as I
command thee, a sound flogging wilt thou get!"
In sullen silence, Enrique arose and received the message, then leaped into a skiff and
rowed ashore. Instead of going to assist the men in removing the goods from the warehouse,
however, as he had been directed, after delivering the message to the king he lingered at
the palace, afraid to return. He had, in fact, rendered his return to the fleet
impossible, for he had told the king that the Spaniards intended to take him captive,
after first destroying the town;
 but that, while they were still unsuspicious, he might forestall them by a massacre.
Immediately upon the arrival at Cebu of the boats containing the survivors of that
ill-fated expedition against Mactan, a council was called on board the flag-ship, for the
election of a captain-general. No one man could well replace their lamented commander, so
a dual command was decided upon, Duarte Barbosa and Joao Serrao being chosen. The first
was Magellan's brother-in-law, and the second his most intimate friend, while both had
seen service in India, with Almeida and Albuquerque. These veteran's decided to vacate
their dangerous position at once, and as a first step ordered the goods they had sent on
shore for barter to be returned to the fleet. They knew that their prestige was gone, that
their days of usefulness at Cebu were over, so nothing was to be gained by remaining.
Three days were thus employed and in putting the ships in order for departure.
Meanwhile, the treacherous King of Cebu had matured his plans, and on the morning of the
1st of May, which was Wednesday, he sent word to Barbosa that some jewels which he had
promised to collect as a present
 to the King of Spain, were ready for delivery. In celebration of the event he had prepared
a feast, to which he invited all the officials of the fleet, and as many of the crew as
chose to come. Barbosa and Serrao consulted together, and finally agreed to accept the
invitation; though the latter, from his long experience with the islanders, was at first
suspicious. Accompanied by twenty-seven others, they were rowed to the beach, where the
king and a multitude of his subjects awaited them.
They were received with shouts of welcome, and at once escorted in the direction of the
palace, the people seemingly wild with joy. As they were moving slowly along, the chaplain
of the fleet, Pedro de Valderrama, was seized by the king's nephew, and urged against his
will to go with him to his hut. He probably desired the distinction of killing the priest
with his own hand and in his own house; but his action attracted the attention of Joao
Carvalho, the pilot, who twitched Espinosa, the alguacil, by the sleeve and said: "See
that, Gonzalo! It gives me suspicions. Let us drop out, and return to the ship. We shall
not be missed, neither will we miss much by losing the feast!"
 The two succeeded in worming their way through the throng and reached the shore, where
they took a boat for the Trinidad. They had scarcely arrived when a great commotion
ashore attracted their attention, and looking towards the land they saw their comrades
surrounded by clamorous natives, who, with spear and kris, were stabbing promiscuously.
One by one they fell, fighting desperately to the last, until there was left only Captain
Serrao, whom the natives dragged to the shore, in order to barter his life for cannon and
other things they had hoped to gain by surprising the fleet.
The caution and watchfulness of Carvalho alone prevented them from plundering the ships,
as he hove up anchor at the first sign of disturbance, and, running abreast the town,
poured into it several broadsides. The Victoria and the
Concepcion followed suit, and then all sailed out of the bay towards the open
sea, without an attempt at the rescue of Serrao, who stood on the shore, whither he had
been dragged by his captors, vainly imploring assistance. He was wounded and bleeding, he
was the only survivor of the party he and Barbosa had led to its doom, yet his shipmate
 companion, Carvalho, refused to send a boat ashore for his rescue! At first he wept and
implored, while his captors, with daggers at his throat, awaited the response from the
ship; but as it became apparent that Carvalho was abandoning him to be murdered in cold
blood, he raised a bleeding hand to Heaven and invoked curses upon that comrade, his
compadre, who could do a thing so base and cowardly. "I pray God," he cried, "that
He may demand my soul of thee, Juan Carvalho, at the last great day of judgment!"
"The imprecation ended in a cry of despair, as his ferocious captors bore him to the
ground, where they stabbed him to death with their daggers. Speechless from terror, and
seemingly incapable of action, the cowardly sailors on board the fleet saw their former
friends and shipmates massacred. They also witnessed, as they were borne to safety from
the harbor, a great crowd of fanatical natives engaged in tearing down the cross that had
been raised so short a time before in the consecrated square. The recantation of Cebu's
king and his subjects was complete, for they promptly returned to the worship of their
idols, and the only
 reminder of the religion they had so transiently professed was the carven image of our
Saviour (already mentioned) which Magellan had presented to the queen.
Twenty-seven valiant Spaniards and Portuguese were slain in that massacre, comprised in
the list of dead being three captains of the fleet's vessels, a pilot, two notaries, a
priest, a gunner, a cooper, common seamen, servants, and sobresalientes, or
supernumeraries. All were deeply lamented, of course, but there were two in particular,
Barbosa and Serrao, who were regarded as an irreparable loss to the fleet. Duarte, or
Edward, Barbosa, was the son of Don Diego, alcaide of the arsenal at Seville. He was born
in Lisbon, and at an early age went to the Indies, where, as clerk in a "factory" at
Cananor, he became so proficient in the Malabar language that he was appointed
commissioner to negotiate a treaty with the Zamorin of Calicut.
Returning to Portugal, and then going to Seville with his father, Duarte Barbosa wrote an
account of his travels which, though called "a most valuable contribution to early
Oriental affairs," was not published until nearly three hundred years after it first
 appeared in manuscript—Lisbon, 1813. As a brother of Beatrix Barbosa, whom Magellan
married, he was said to have been appointed sobresaliente on board the
Trinidad through favoritism; but he amply proved his capacity on several
occasions, notably at San Julian, where he retook the Victoria from the
mutineers. He was then appointed captain of that vessel, as such ably aiding Magellan, and
after his death rising to joint command of the Trinidad. He was killed by a
dagger-thrust in the breast.
Captain Joao Serrao was probably the ablest man in the fleet, hardly excepting Magellan
himself. As pilot and navigator, he had served under Vasco da Gama (who made him captain
of a ship), also under Almeida and Albuquerque, and at the battle of Cananor fought by the
side of Magellan, whose desperate valor was equalled only by his own. Having served
beneath the same banner in the East, Magellan and Serrao, with their recollection of
battles fought and hardships endured together, were deeply attached to each other.
Serrao's services to the captain-general were inestimable, first as captain and pilot of
the Santiago, then as commander of the Concepcion, and all the
 time as a devoted adherent. He endeavored to dissuade his stubborn friend from attacking
the natives of Mactan, and if he had listened to his advice, Magellan would not have met
with untimely death at the very verge of the sea surrounding the Spice Islands.
"We heard of the Moluccas at Cebu, before the death of the captain-general," says
Pigafetta; and but for the Mactan expedition, Fernan Magellan might have lived to see
them. As it was, through his negligence he not only lost his own life, but indirectly
brought about the loss of others, when, deprived of their sagacious head, the officials of
the fleet unwisely accepted the invitation to that fatal banquet.
Respecting the death of Serrao, an eye-witness says: "As soon as the men in the ships saw
the slaughter, they hoisted the anchors and tried to set sail. At that juncture, the
savages brought Juan Serrao, one of those whom they desired to ransom, and asked two guns,
and two bahars of copper for him. Serrao told them to take him to the ship
and he would give them what they asked; but they insisted that those things be taken
ashore. And the men on
 the ship, fearing another act of treachery, set sail and abandoned that man there, and
nothing more was ever heard of him."
Despite his treachery to Serrao, the wretch whom fortune had placed in command of the
flag-ship, Joao Carvalho, was confirmed as captain-general of the fleet. It is claimed by
his enemies that it was owing to his desire to acquire supreme command that he so brutally
sailed away and left poor Serrao to his fate. Three vessels then comprised the armada, and
this small fleet was still further reduced, after the narrow channel between Cebu and
Bohol had been passed, by the burning of the Concepcion. This vessel was found to
be leaking badly, and as all the ships were then short-handed, owing to the loss of so
many men, her contents and crew were divided between the Trinidad and
Victoria. These two were all that remained, the first week in May, 1521, of the
gallant fleet which had set sail from Seville nineteen months before, for the
Santiago's bones were bleaching on the coast of Patagonia, the San
Antonio had deserted her companions in the Strait of Magellan, and the
Concepcion was burned to the water's edge off the island of Bohol in the
 That same week in which the Concepcion was burned and abandoned, the San
Antonio and her guilty crew arrived at Seville, and promulgated the false
statements anent Fernan Magellan, whose death, in the far-distant Philippines, had
occurred just ten days previously. By the defection of the San Antonio, the fight
at Mactan, and the massacre in Cebu, the total force in the fleet had been reduced to less
than one hundred and twenty men, for, in round numbers, at least eighty had returned to
Spain, and seventy had died from starvation, fevers, and violence. So it was with its
original force reduced by more than one-half, and the number of its ships by three-fifths,
that the expedition finally left the Philippines, still in pursuit of the "Spiceries." It
touched at the island of Mindanao, coasted the promontory of Zamboanga, and then stood
across the Sulu Sea for Palawan, or Paragua Island, arriving on its east coast with less
than a week's provisions remaining in the ships.
Palawan, the wandering Argonauts ascertained, was far out of their course, but it was a
land "flowing with milk and honey"—or, in other words, abounding in pigs and
 poultry, goats, rice, fruits, and sugar-cane. They found there "black men, like those of
Ethiopia"—the diminutive Negritos; but the King of Palawan was a very tall and
imposing individual—or, at least, he seemed so by comparison with the little black
men, who did not average five feet in height. To the northward of Palawan lie Mindoro and
Luzon, "where six or eight junks of the Chinese go yearly," says Pigafetta, who, in common
with his companions, either landed at or heard mentioned most of the large islands in the
Palawan, or Paragua, "we called the land of promise," he continues, "because we suffered
great hunger before we found it. The king made peace with us by gashing himself slightly
in the breast with one of our knives, and with the blood that issued touching the tip of
his tongue and his forehead, in token of the truest peace, and we did the same." The
people wore no clothing, and were peaceable, but possessed a formidable weapon in the
poisoned arrow, which they projected with great force and accuracy through bamboo
blow-pipes. With these blow-pipes and poisoned arrows the natives shot beautiful birds,
high up in the great
 forest trees, the plumage of which they used for decorative purposes. They were a loose
and easy-going people, whose chief pleasure consisted in cock-fights, without which they
held no feast or festival day to be complete. They regarded their fighting-cocks with
veneration, and never ate the flesh of one, no matter how hungry they were.
In the port of Palawan a negro was found who had been in the Moluccas, where he was
baptized as a Christian, he said, and where he had learned some Portuguese words. He
promised to pilot the fleet to those islands, and there was rejoicing on board, as may be
imagined; for not only had Magellan overshot the Moluccas by nearly fifteen degrees, in
laying his course across the Pacific, but ever since the departure from Cebu his
leaderless companions had been aimlessly cruising about, without a guide to direct them.
But the negro from the Moluccas did not keep his engagement, and as, when on the point of
sailing, a Moro vessel was captured which had come from Borneo, its pilots were impressed
to guide them to this the largest island in the world.
Carvalho and his pilots had heard of
 Borneo, for it had then been known to the Portuguese three or four years; but none of them
had ever been there. They knew nothing of its civilization, and viewed with wonder the
tokens of it as the island was approached. Three great proas came out to meet them as the
harbor of its capital was neared, each proa decorated in gold, and flying a blue-and-white
banner surmounted with peacock feathers. Beneath the banners sat groups of musicians,
beating gongs and drums; and in this manner, preceded by stately proas, and to the sound
of martial music, the ships entered the beautiful harbor of Brunei, in Borneo. As soon as
the ships had anchored, a fleet of proas came out to take the passengers ashore, where, to
their astonishment, they found a troop of richly caparisoned elephants awaiting them.
After they had timorously mounted the beasts, a procession was formed which set out for
the sultan's palace, preceded by ten men carrying presents in porcelain jars covered with
silk. The streets of Brunei were filled with half-naked warriors bearing swords, shields,
spears, and cutlasses, while the great hall of the palace contained hundreds of soldiers
clad in cloth-of-gold, with
 daggers on their thighs adorned with pearls and precious stones.
The sultan was invisible to the strangers, and they were compelled to converse with him
through a "speaking-tube"; but he consented to admire their presents, and sent them to
their rooms delighted with his graciousness. There, for the first time in many months,
they slept on cotton mattresses, "whose lining was of taffeta, and the sheets of Cambaia."
This unwonted luxury caused them to sleep till late in the morning, when they were regaled
at breakfast with capons, veal, peacocks, and fish, washed down with wine of rice, called
arrack, which they drank from dainty cups the size of an egg. They returned to the
sea-shore as they had come, on elephant-back, and each man with his hands full of gifts
from the sultan.
The city of Brunei was built after the fashion of the ancient lake-dwellers' towns, mainly
on piles, above the placid waters of a great bay, with waterways for boats, instead of
streets; but the sultan's palace was on dry land. In the river beyond the bay were
anchored fleets of war-proas, manned by fierce-looking Malays, which had been constantly
increasing in number
 since the arrival of the ships. Carvalho and Espinosa had been watching them suspiciously
several days, for many of them had taken position between the ships and the sea. One
morning, in the last week of July, two hundred or more of these proas suddenly hove up
their anchors and started to surround the fleet. No sooner had they done so, than the
commanders met them with a discharge of their batteries, then set sail and stood out of
the harbor. Many proas were shattered or overturned, and in open water outside the harbor
a royal junk was captured which was commanded by a prince of Luzon as captain-general in
Borneo's service. He was then returning from a plundering expedition and laden with
spoils. In exchange for a large portion of his treasure, it is said, Captain Carvalho gave
him his liberty, but he retained as captives three beautiful females whom the prince had
captured and was taking as a present to his queen.
NATIVES OF LUZON.
The crafty Carvalho was speedily punished for his dereliction from duty, as, by allowing
the prince to go free in exchange for gold, he was prevented from redeeming two of his men
who, in the haste of departure, had been
 left ashore at Brunei. One of these was his own son by an Indian woman of Brazil; yet he
left him without any apparent compunctions, and probably never heard of him more.
It was a long descent from Magellan to Carvalho as commander, and even his countrymen on
board the ship could not endure him longer; so they deposed him, sometime during the
voyage from Borneo to the Moluccas. They elected Espinosa, the alguacil,
commander-in-chief, and Juan Sebastian del Cano captain of the Victoria. Carvalho
soon sank out of sight, as he was, after all, a man of no great capacity, and met his end
in an island of the Moluccas, February 14, 1522, Espinosa, as his successor on the
Trinidad, soon proved himself inefficient; but he retained command, in spite of his
defects, until he had brought the gallant flag-ship to a watery grave.