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VESPASIAN AND HIS SONS CELEBRATE A TRIUMPH
 WHILE Titus remained at Cæsarea he celebrated his brothersís birthday with
great splendor, and put to death a great number of the prisoners. After this
he removed to Berytus, a Roman colony in Phnicia. Here he made quite a
long stay, and celebrated his fatherís birthday by killing many more of his
While Titus was besieging Jerusalem, his father, Vespasian, had set out from
Alexandria to Rome, and Titus now obtained news of the splendid manner in which
he had been received by all the Italian cities. When he drew near Rome, the people
poured out in crowds to meet him, and joyfully hailed him as their emperor. The
city was hung with garlands, and for days the multitudes feasted, and offered
sacrifices to their gods that the empire of Vespasian might long be preserved.
After hearing this good news, Titus left Berytus and marched towards Antioch,
passing through many cities of Syria, in which he put to death many more of his
prisoners by making them fight one another as gladiators.
When Titus drew near Antioch, the people hastened forth to meet him, and received
him with loud acclamations; and at the same time they besought him to drive all
the Jewish inhabitants out of the town.
Now, there were a great many Jews in Antioch, and they were much attached to the
city, because they had always
en-  joyed equal rights with the native Syrians. And they had built there a very large and
But at the time when the war had first broken out, and Vespasian had just landed
in Syria, and when hatred of the Jews was everywhere at its height, a man of their
own race, called Antiochus, the son of the chief magistrate of the Jews in Antioch,
excited much hatred against his brethren in Antioch by bearing false witness against
them. For he charged the Jews, and among them his own father, with having formed a
design to burn the whole of the city during a certain night, and he delivered up
some foreign Jews as accomplices in the plot.
The native inhabitants of course became very much incensed, and they immediately
put to death those Jews that had been delivered up to them. The people then rushed
against the other Jews, thinking that by putting them all to death they would save
their city from being burned down. A number of them were massacred, and those that
escaped this fate were cruelly persecuted. Antiochus, aided by a body of Roman
troops sent by the governor of Syria, lorded it over the Jews, and would not even
allow them to rest upon the Sabbath.
In a little while it happened that a fire broke out in the market-place, which
burned down a number of the public buildings, and was with difficulty kept from
spreading over the whole town. Antiochus charged the Jews with this deed. Upon
this the Syrian inhabitants attacked the poor Jews with the greatest rage. Cneus
Collegas, the commander of the Roman troop, interposed and saved the Jews from a
general massacre, and allayed the fury of the inhabitants, promising to lay the
matter before Cæsar.
Collegas began to investigate the affair, and found out that the Jews were not
to blame, but that the market-place had been set on fire by some wicked men who
owed large sums of money, and who thought if they could destroy the public
 buildings in which the records of their debts were kept they would escape from
having to pay them.
Still the inhabitants hated the Jews; so when Titus came they begged him to
drive them from the city. Titus, however, did not give any answer, but went
immediately on to Aeugma, a town upon the Euphrates.
But he very soon returned to Antioch, and visited the theatre, where all the
people had assembled to receive him. There they again besought him to expel
the Jews from the city. But Titus answered,—
"The country of the Jews is destroyed; thither they cannot return. It would
be hard to allow them no home to which they can retreat. Leave them in peace."
Failing in this request, the people then asked that the rights of the Jews
should be taken away from them. But this Titus also refused, and, leaving
the Jews every right that they had formerly enjoyed in Antioch, he set out
On his way thither, Titus passed by Jerusalem, and, as he surveyed the ruins,
he could not help thinking of the beautiful city that had formerly stood there.
And he felt very sorry that he had been compelled by the insurgents to destroy so
great and splendid a city.
Titus now made haste towards Egypt, and, crossing the desert with great speed, he
soon reached Alexandria. Here he dismissed his two legions, and set sail for Italy.
The two leaders, Simon and John, with seven hundred Jewish captives, whom he had
selected on account of their beauty and height, he ordered to be sent after him,
that they might grace his triumph in Rome.
Titus enjoyed a safe and speedy voyage, and received a warm welcome in Rome. His
father and his younger brother, Domitian, who had lately returned to Rome after
quelling a revolt among the Germans, came out to meet him. The people were
overjoyed to see the father and his sons united, and great rejoicings took place.
 Vespasian and his sons agreed that they should celebrate their successes in war
upon the same day by one common triumph, although the senate had decreed a separate
day for each. When the day arrived, the whole multitude poured out to view the
Before sunrise all the military forces marched out in companies and divisions
under their officers, and drew up around the gates, near the temple of Isis,
where the imperial family had reposed for the night.
When morning broke, Vespasian and Titus came forth, crowned with laurel and
clothed in purple garments, and ascended a high tribunal which had been erected
for them. Instantly a joyous shout burst from the troops, and Vespasian bowed his
head to his soldiers, and then made them a signal to be silent. The emperor then
rose, and, covering his head with his cloak, he, together with Titus, offered up
prayers to the Roman gods. This done, Vespasian made a short speech to the soldiers,
and then dismissed them to a repast he had provided.
After the repast the pageant entered the city, passing through the theatres, that
the assembled crowds might have a better view. Words could not describe the beauty
and magnificence of the procession which took place, and the splendor of the
articles which were displayed to view,—gold and silver and ivory, wrought
in various forms, beautiful tapestries, worked in Babylon, jewels and crowns of
gold, and images of gods made of costly materials.
Different kinds of wild animals were led along by men clad in splendid garments,
and numbers of captives dressed in the costumes of their nation. But nothing in
the pageant excited so much wonder and admiration as some huge structures rising
to the height of three or four stories. These were divided into platforms rising
one above the other, and on each was represented some feature of the war.
Here was to be seen a happy country laid waste, and there
 an army slain and routed; some again in flight, others being led into captivity;
high walls laid in ruins by engines; strong fortresses battered down; populous
cities overrun by armies; houses thrown down, and their owners buried in the
ruins; rivers running through lands laid waste and wrapped in flames on every side.
On each of these platforms was placed the governor of one of the captured cities.
A number of ships also followed. Then the spoils of the war were displayed in
confused heaps, and among them, and placed where all could see, were the sacred
treasures taken from the temple of Jerusalem. Last of all was borne the Jewish
Book of the Law. Next came a body of men carrying images of Victory made of gold
and ivory; and next Vespasian was driven along in a chariot, followed by Titus,
while Domitian rode beside him upon a beautiful horse.
The procession stopped before the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, and waited until
the Jewish general Simon had been put to death. For he had been led along by a
halter, and was now dragged to a place overlooking the Forum, and there was
executed. When the tidings spread that Simon was no more, the people gave a
shout of joy, and, after offering up sacrifices, they dispersed.
Some were entertained at a banquet by the emperor and princes themselves, while
all had feasts prepared at home, for all the Romans kept festival that day in
celebration of the victories gained by the imperial family.
When the triumphs were over, Vespasian commenced to build a beautiful temple,
which he dedicated to Peace. When it was finished, he stored in it beautiful
statues and paintings, taken from different countries, and for a sight of which
men had before wandered over the whole world. Here he placed also the golden
vessels taken from the temple of Jerusalem. But the purple veils of the sanctuary
and the Book of the Law he kept in his own palace.