IN THE DAYS OF OLIVER CROMWELL
"Cromwell, our chief of men, who through a cloud,
Guided by faith and matchless fortitude,
To peace and truth thy glorious way hast ploughed."
THE famous Navigation Act, which brought on the war between England and Holland, was one of the last acts in the
life of the great Englishman Oliver Cromwell. Before telling the stories of the fine old Sea Admirals who
fought in that war for the power of the seas, let us see what this man Cromwell had already done for his
Oliver Cromwell was a very giant among men, the "wonder of Europe and the glory of his age." Like the Pilgrim
Fathers, he was a Puritan, steeped in the language of his Bible, intolerant of Roman Catholics. He had a mighty
brain and a great soul; but he was no perfect hero, no spotless saint. He was just a strong man, who did what
he thought best for his country in a difficult age.
The young Oliver was four years old when
 Queen Elizabeth died and James became King of England. There is a story that, when he was a small baby, a large
monkey seized him out of his cradle and carried him up on to the roof of the house. Another story says, that
the very year of James's accession, his little son, Prince Charles, was worsted at "fisticuffs" while playing
with Oliver Cromwell, who was but a year older than himself. But as the little Prince did not speak till he was
five, and crawled on his hands and knees till he was seven, this is not likely.
It was a sorry day for England when this same young prince became king, on the death of his father in 1625, and
the long quarrels were begun which ended only with his execution.
Now, England was governed by a king and Parliament. This latter consisted of a number of men from all parts of
the country who decided on laws and taxes for the good of the land. In this Parliament sat young Oliver
Cromwell. No one thought much of him. He slouched in and out in a home-spun suit, took little part publicly,
and seemed glad enough to return to his farm, his wife and children, near Ely, in the eastern counties. It was
not till Charles had plunged his country into civil war, by reason of his unjust taxation, that Cromwell rose
to play his great part.
There was no standing army in England at this time. Troops were raised by private people, and Oliver Cromwell
found himself in command of a
 troop of horse. Together with his parliamentary friends he was present at the first battle against the king.
The king, helped by his fiery nephew, Prince Rupert, fresh over from the Thirty Years' War, was victorious.
Cromwell knew why.
"Your troops," he said to one of his friends, "are old decayed serving-men, and the king's troops are
gentlemen's sons. Do you think that the spirits of such base and mean fellows will ever be able to encounter
gentlemen, that have honour and courage and resolution in them?"
The final result of the whole war lay in these words. Cromwell now chose men for the army who were sternly
Puritan, who had their hearts in the cause, who had some conscience in what they did. Every soldier henceforth
had to undergo a severe training. Cromwell himself, having learned from a Dutchman the art of war, drilled the
men, until he had a cavalry regiment under his orders so fiery with zeal, so well restrained, that no body of
horse could compare with it. No longer was there any thought of flight, none of retreat; deeds of eternal fame
were done, endless and infinite. "From that day forward they were never beaten." So Cromwell and his Ironsides,
as the soldiers were called, advanced to victory. Red coats were worn for the first time in this "New Model
Army," as it was called.
The king was finally beaten and brought to trial
in London. Then came the signing of the
death-  warrant by Cromwell and fifty-seven others, and preparations for the execution. The dignity which had failed
the poor king in his life, came to him in these last days. He was allowed to say good-bye to his young
children, a scene among the most pathetic in history. Having taken them on his knee and kissed them again and
yet again, he ordered them to be taken away. When they reached the door they flew back to his arms, sobbing
aloud, until the wretched King Charles tore himself away, only to fall on his knees in prayer.
Firmly he mounted the scaffold. As his head was lifted up to the sight of his subjects, a groan of pity and
horror burst from the crowd. The news was received throughout Europe in silent horror.
But the death of the king was a great landmark in history. The old rule was behind, the new rule was before. A
new life had arisen for England, which would affect the history of Europe.
Oliver Cromwell was now a king in all but name. Of his campaigns in Ireland and Scotland there is no time to
tell. At the age of forty-three he had girt on his sword. At the age of fifty-two he laid it down.
"See what a multitude of people come to attend your triumph," they said to him when he returned from the wars.
"More would come to see me hanged," he had answered with a careless smile, knowing how unpopular he was.
 The country had been torn by war for ten years. Cromwell now turned his attention to a settlement of affairs.
And first and foremost came the Act giving to the English increased power at sea, with more far-reaching
results than even Oliver Cromwell could foresee.