|The Awakening of Europe|
|by M. B. Synge|
|Book III of the Story of the World series. Covers the reformation in Germany, the Netherlands, France, and England, as well as the settlement of colonies in America. The rise of England and the Netherlands as sea powers, and the corresponding fall of Spain, as well as the rise of Russia, Austria, and the German states are also presented. Ages 11-18 |
THE GREATEST GENERAL OF HIS AGE
"Jack of Marlborough,
Who beat the Frenchman thorough and thorough."
—Old English Rhyme.
 THOUGH the seventeenth century ended in peace, yet dark storm-clouds were hovering over Europe. Louis XIV. still
reigned in France, William III. in England; but it was towards distant Spain that the eyes of kings and people
were now strained.
There on the throne of his forefathers sat a miserable and sickly king, whose death must end the long line of
princes who had for two hundred years occupied the Spanish throne. The great question now engaging Europe was:
Who should succeed him? Spain had fallen from her high estate, but so vast still was the extent of her empire
that under vigorous rule her old power might yet return. In 1700 the poor king died, leaving his kingdom to
Philip, the young grandson of Louis XIV. of France, the younger brother of that little Louis loved and taught
by Fénelon years before. Nothing could have been more pleasing to the ambition of Louis XIV. Gladly enough he
despatched his grandson, a boy of seventeen, to the Court of Madrid, though the boy-king of Spain was in bitter
tears at leaving his home
 in Paris for a long winter journey to his new kingdom.
"Remember there are no longer any Pyrenean mountains," were Louis' parting words to Philip.
Louis had promised faithfully never to unite the thrones of France and Spain, and it was with some uneasiness
now that Europe watched him directing young Philip with a high hand.
No one felt more uneasy than William III. of England. His whole life had been a struggle to keep the
ever-growing power of France within bounds. He distrusted Louis, and it was with reluctance that he
acknowledged Philip as King of Spain. Now Louis went a step farther.
James, the exiled King of England, lay dying in France, when Louis entered his room and promised him to help
his son Charles to regain the English throne when William should die. In a moment all England was in a blaze.
The English people had never loved their Dutch king, but he had made them free, he had been the champion of the
Protestant religion. Should the King of France dictate to them who was to be their king? A thousand times No.
Rather would they fight. In the midst of these storms William was thrown one day from his horse and broke his
collar-bone. In the wretched state of his health he had no strength to rally.
"There was a time when I should have been glad to have been delivered out of my difficulties,"
 whispered the dying king to his lifelong Dutch friend; "but I see another scene, and could wish to live a
This was denied him. It was in the year 1702 that William died, leaving his sister-in-law Anne to be Queen of
England. Angrily the King of France received the news of her accession, and two months later war was declared
by England against France and Spain.
The command of the troops was given by Anne to her old friend the Duke of Marlborough. This was the man who was
now to carry on the work of his old master in baffling the ambitions of France—the man who was to decide the
fate of Europe.
Already glimpses of him have appeared from time to time. He was one of those who deserted his king to fight
under the banner of William of Orange. He had helped Anne to escape before her father, James II., reached
London. He had later been caught plotting with the very king whom he had deserted, and thrown into prison by
William. Pardoned and restored to favour, he became tutor to Anne's little boy, heir to the throne; for Mary
had died of smallpox while still young, leaving no child to succeed her and William.
Marlborough was ambitious and scheming, but he was a marvellous soldier. He did not take up his command till
the age of fifty-two, an age when the work of many men is nearly done; but he had unbroken good fortune.
Voltaire said that he
 never besieged a fortress that he did not take, or fight a battle that he did not win.
"Our Duke was as calm at the mouth of a cannon as at the door of a drawing-room," said one who served under
him. "He was cold, calm, resolute as fate."
"Yet those of the army who knew him best and had suffered most from him admired him most of all; and as he rode
along the lines to battle, or galloped up in the nick of time to a battalion reeling from before the enemy's
charge or shot, the fainting men and officers got new courage as they saw the splendid calm of his face, and
felt that his will made them irresistible."
Such was the Duke of Marlborough, the "greatest general of his age."
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