PREPARING THE EMPIRE
LIVINGSTONE AND STANLEY IN CENTRAL AFRICA
 WHILE Captain McClintock was bringing home the last news of Sir John Franklin to England, another of Britain's
bravest sons was preparing the way for civilization in Central Africa, enduring untold hardship for the sake
of his high mission.
A few years after the Queen's accession, David Livingstone, a young Scotsman, started on a five months' voyage
to the Cape of Good Hope to take up missionary work among the natives of South Africa. Landing at Algoa Bay,
after a long ox-wagon journey of 700 miles he arrived at the Mission-station, in the very heart of the country
now known as British Bechuanaland. There he gained a knowledge of native languages, native customs, and laws,
which enabled him to do much good work later on. But the Boers, who had recently trekked to the Transvaal,
looked toward Bechuanaland for the extension of their boundaries, and they raided the little Mission-station,
carrying off the little black children as their slaves.
So Livingstone started northwards; he crossed the Kalahari Desert—a great wilderness of rocks and sand
and lifeless scrub—and discovered the Lake
 Nyami, for which the Royal Geographical Society voted him twenty-five guineas.
The discovery of the Zambesi—the largest river in South Africa—added to his fame. While performing
the unparalleled feat of crossing Africa from ocean to ocean, east and west, he discovered the great Victoria
Falls in the country now known as Rhodesia. Then, after years of hardship, he took ship for England. The grief
of his black attendants was pitiful. "Take us; we will die at your feet,"
 they cried. Finally he agreed to take the chief, but the sea was wild and stormy, and the terrified man threw
himself overboard and was drowned.
THE ZAMBESI RIVER.
It is hard in these days, when books of travel are so common, to realize the immense interest created in
England by the publication of Livingstone's Journals in 1857.
 Englishmen had been interesting themselves more of late in the great African continent, that was to play so
large a part in her history. Natal had been added to the Empire, the independence of the Transvaal had been
recognized by this country. Lake Tanganyika and Victoria Nyanza had been discovered by Englishmen.
Livingstone's next achievement was the discovery of Lake Nyassa, now forming the boundary between Rhodesia and
Portuguese Africa. He opened up the new country of Nyassaland, which to-day is the heart of the Central
African Protectorate, administered by a British commissioner under our Colonial Office. It would take too long
to follow the missionary explorer on his travels through Central Africa. Strong in purpose, high in courage,
his toil was incessant, his industry unflagging.
VICTORIA FALLS AND GORGE, ZAMBESI RIVER.
In 1867 news reached England of his discovery of Lake Bangweolo, now included in Rhodesia and the waters of
the Upper Congo, though he did not realize it was the Congo at all. Time passed on, and a rumour reached
England that he was dead. The last letter from him bore the date 1867. There was a repetition of that silence
which surrounded the fate of Franklin. The silence was broken by H. M. Stanley, a journalist sent by the
New York Herald to discover whether Livingstone was alive or dead. How the two men met in the
very heart of Africa, forms one of the romances of history.
Livingstone was one day sitting in his hut on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, when news arrived that
 a white man had made his way from the coast, and was searching for a friend. Soon the two English-speaking men
were face to face.
"Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" said Stanley, as he looked at the old man before him with long white beard and
tired face, his form reduced to a mere skeleton for want of proper food. He wore an official cap with faded
gold band, a red-sleeved waistcoat, and much-patched tweed trousers.
"Yes," answered the old explorer.
A warm grasp of hands followed.
"You have brought me new life—new life," murmured Livingstone, as the two men compared experiences. But
in vain Stanley begged him to return to England; the old man resolutely turned away from home, with its
well-earned comforts and honours; he could not rest till he had cleared up the mystery of the Lake Tanganyika
watershed. Stanley accompanied him some little way on his last heroic journey, and then turned sadly back.
SIR H. M. STANLEY.
Two years after this Livingstone died. He died kneeling by his rough camp bed in the attitude of prayer.
 His faithful black servants buried his heart in the still forest near the shores of Lake Bangweolo, and
carried his body to the coast, through swamp and desert, whence it was taken to England to be laid in
Westminster Abbey, with a simple record of his great work.
The death of his friend Livingstone before the completion of his life-work made a deep impression on Stanley,
and he resolved to follow in his steps and carry on the work.
In the year 1874 he started for Zanzibar, bound for the great African lakes. As yet little was known of
Victoria Nyanza, and most of Central Africa was blank upon our maps. The expedition, numbering some 356,
started inland on November 17, carrying a cedar canoe, the Lady Alice, in sections, to explore the
lakes. It was the end of February when, after 740 miles of marching, the first sight of Victoria Nyanza came
into view, and the men burst into cheers of delight. The little canoe was soon afloat and the lake was
Having proved that the Nile left the northern end of the lake, and for 300 miles raced between high rocky
walls over rapids and cataracts till it flowed through Albert Nyanza to Khartum, Stanley made his way to the
famous region of Uganda—the "Pearl of Africa"—where he was warmly received by the black king,
Mtesa. He was greatly struck by the intelligence of the king, and grasped the possibilities of Uganda as a
centre of civilization. "With the aid of Mtesa the civilization of equatorial Africa becomes possible"; he
wrote home begging that
 missionaries might be sent at once to carry on the work which he himself had begun.
SCENE ON THE CONGO RIVER.
Stanley now turned his attention to the watershed between the Nile and the Congo, making his way south to Lake
Tanganyika, which he completely explored. Yet greater discoveries were before him
 as he now started on his eventful journey. His wanderings had already lasted two years, and his men were
reduced to less than half the original number, when he turned westward through dense jungle to the still
unknown basin of the Congo, at this time known as the River Livingstone, and supposed to be the Nile. Great
were the obstacles; fierce tribes attacked the little party, and sickness broke out in their midst.
On Christmas Day, 1876, a crisis arose. Stanley's resolution alone saved the situation.
"My children, make up your minds as I have made up mine: we shall continue our journey and toil on and on by
this river till we reach the great salt sea."
So the twenty-three canoes started off on the unknown river, heading for the equator. A weary twenty days
followed, cannibals appeared on the banks, the stream grew wild and turbulent, cataracts abounded, and at last
the river suddenly narrowed and flung its waters over a wide precipice—the Stanley Falls. Then the river
widened, and Stanley knew he must be sailing down the great Congo River. All through the months of February
and March he struggled with the raging waters—day after day it seemed as if the little canoe must be
dashed to pieces—until in August 1877 the coast was reached.
Stanley had explored the whole course of the Congo—a river 3,000 miles in length—the second
largest river in the world.
BASOKO WOMEN MAKING POTTERY, CONGO FREE STATE.
 Such men as Franklin, Livingstone, and Stanley were not only makers of history and pioneers of civilization:
they were very giants of perseverance and endurance—scorners of that luxury which tends to sap away the
strength of our manhood and weaken our national character.
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