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 IT has already been said that Charlemagne was a German. He, of course, spoke German, but even in his day the people in the
western part of his kingdom, in what is now the land of France used a language that was beginning to seem somewhat like
French. This change had begun long before, in the days when the country fell into the hands of the Romans, who
introduced their own language, the Latin.
AN ANCIENT CASTLE AT CLISSON, FRANCE.
Now if a new language were introduced into any country today, few people would speak it correctly, and it was so in
France. The people made the new tongue as easy as possible. For instance, when a Roman wished to say of or
to he usually added a letter or two to the noun following. The people of France used the prepositions de
or à, and did not trouble themselves to change the noun. Other words or expressions were made simpler or altered in much
the same way, and
 before the end of the tenth century, the people of France were speaking a language that was composed of a little
Cel'tic, a little German, and a great deal of Latin; but the Latin had become quite different from that used by
the Romans. This mixture was rapidly turning into French as it is spoken to-day.
The French people, then, differed in language from the Germans, and many of the nobles were feeling more and more
strongly that they did not wish to be ruled by a German, but by one of themselves, one who would talk French and feel
and think like a Frenchman, one who would be satisfied with ruling France and would not be ever thinking of forming an
empire and becoming emperor.
A CELEBRATED FEUDAL CASTLE IN TOURAINE, FRANCE.
In 987, there was an excellent opportunity to put a new family upon the throne, for the last of Charlemagne's direct
descendants, Louis the Child, had just died. The great barons met together to choose a ruler. They decided upon Duke
Hugh Ca-pet', and he became king. He had little more power, however, than some of his counts and
 dukes; and it may be that he sometimes wished he was still a duke, for some of the nobles refused to accept him as their
ruler. There is a story that one of his vassals, that is, one who held land from him by feudal tenure, overran the
district of Tour-aine', and forthwith began to call himself Count of Tours and Poi-ti-ers.' "Who made you
count?" demanded Hugh; and the independent vassal retorted, "Who made you king?" Indeed, if the brave men of Normandy
had not stood by him, Hugh would have had a hard struggle to keep his throne. He meant not only to keep it, but to hand
it down in his family, and only a few months after his election he asked his nobles to elect his son Rob'ert king
also. Then, while he lived, he reasoned shrewdly, Robert would help him govern the kingdom, and at his death there would
be no question as to who should rule, and no division of the kingdom. At first the nobles hesitated a little. "We cannot
elect two kings in one year," they gave as an excuse; but at length they yielded, and Robert was crowned.
This was the beginning of the rule of the powerful Ca-pe'tian family which was to hold the throne of France for
more than three centuries. Gaul, or France, had been ruled for many years by Romans and by Germans, but Hugh Capet was a
Frenchman, ruling French people, the first king of France.
The language of France in the tenth century. — Who shall be king?—The choice of Hugh Capet. — His independent vassal. — The
election of Robert.