THE crusades, the Renaissance, the invention of printing, and the travels of Marco Polo in the East had set people to
thinking about matters in the great world beyond the limits of their own little villages or towns. The part of the earth
in which the greatest number were interested was In'di-a. The reason was that Europeans had learned to demand the
spices and silks and cottons and jewels of the East. The old way of bringing these to Europe was up the Red Sea and
across the Mediterranean to Venice; or through the Black Sea, past Constantinople, and through the Mediterranean to
Genoa. Now that the Turks held Constantinople, the eastern Mediterranean was a dangerous place. Just as people were
beginning to think they must have the Eastern luxuries, it became more and more difficult to obtain them; and the nation
that could find the shortest way to India would soon be possessed of untold wealth.
COLUMBUS BEFORE THE LEARNED MEN OF SALAMANCA.
One man who was thinking most earnestly about India was named Chris'to-pher Co-lum'bus. He was born in Genoa and
had been at sea most of his life since he was fourteen. He had
 read and studied and thought until he was convinced that the world was round and that the best way to reach China and
Ja-pan was not to make the wearisome overland journey through Asia, but to sail directly west across the
At-lan'tic. He had asked the city of Genoa to provide money for the expedition; and he had also asked the king of
Por'tu-gal; but to no purpose. Finally he appealed to Fer'di-nand and Is-a-bel'la, king and queen
This was why, toward the end of the fifteenth century, a company of learned Spaniards met together at
lis-  ten to the schemes of a simple, unknown Italian sailor. Columbus told them what he believed. Then they brought forward
their objections. "A ship might possibly reach India in that way," said one gravely, "but she could never sail uphill
and come home again." "If the world is round and people are on the opposite side, they must hang by their feet with
their heads down," declared another scornfully. Another objection was that such an expedition as Columbus proposed would
be expensive. Moreover he demanded the title of admiral of whatever lands he might discover and one tenth of all
precious stones, gold, silver, spices, and other merchandise that should be found in these lands. This was not because
he was greedy for money, but he was planning to win the Holy Sepulcher at Jerusalem from the Turks, and to do this would
require an enormous fortune.
Columbus had formed a noble scheme, but there seemed small hope that it would be carried out by Spanish aid, for the
Spaniards were waging an important war with the Moors, or Mohammedans. The Moors had a kingdom in the south of Spain
containing a number of cities. In the capital, Granada, was the palace and fortress of the Al-ham'bra, a
wonderfully beautiful structure, even in ruins as it is to-day. Granada was captured, but even then the Spaniards seemed
to have no time to listen to Columbus.
CONVENT OF LA RABIDA
(THE PART COLUMBUS KNEW IS TO THE RIGHT)
At length he made up his mind to leave Spain and go for aid to the king of France. With his little son Di-e'go
he started out on foot. The child was hungry, and so they stopped at the gate of the convent of La Ra'bi-da, near
the town of Pa'los, Spain, to beg for the food that was never refused to wayfarers. The prior was a student of
geography. He heard the ideas of
Colum-  bus, put faith in them, and invited some of his learned friends to meet the stranger. "Spain must not lose the honor of
such an enterprise," the prior declared, and he even went himself to the queen. He had once been her confessor, and she
greeted him kindly. King Ferdinand did not believe in the undertaking, but the queen became thoroughly interested in it.
She was Queen of Ar'a-gon by her marriage to Ferdinand, but she was Queen of Castile in her own right, and she
exclaimed, "I undertake the enterprise for my own crown of Castile, and will pledge my jewels to raise the necessary
Thus, after eighteen years' delay, the way opened for Columbus, and he set sail from Palos with three small vessels; but
even after they were at sea Columbus must have felt as if his troubles were but just begun, for his sailors were full of
 They were not cowards, but no one had ever crossed the Atlantic, and there were legends that in one place it was
swarming with monsters, and that in another the water boiled with the intense heat. There was real danger, also, from
the jealous Portuguese, for it was rumored that they had sent out vessels to capture Columbus's little fleet. It is
small wonder that the sailors were dismayed by the fires of the volcanic peak of Ten-er-iffe', but they were
almost equally alarmed by every little occurrence. The mast of a wrecked vessel floated by, and they feared it was a
sign that their vessel, too, would be wrecked. After a while, the magnetic needle ceased to point to the north star, and
they were filled with dread lest they should lose their way on the vast ocean. One night a brilliant meteor appeared,
and then they
 were sure that destruction was at hand. The good east wind was sweeping them gently along; but even that worried them,
for they feared it would never alter, and how could they get home? Some of them had begun to whisper together of
throwing Columbus overboard, when one day they saw land-birds and floating weeds and finally a glimmering light. Then the
sailers were as eager to press onward as their leader.
SHIPS OF COLUMBUS
(THE VESSELS WERE THE PINTA, THE NINA, AND THE SANTA MARIA)
Early on the following morning land appeared. Columbus wearing his brilliant scarlet robes and bearing the standard of
Spain, was rowed ashore. He fell upon his knees and kissed the ground, thanking God most heartily for his care. Then he
took possession of the land for Spain. The natives gathered around, and he gave them bells and glass beads. He supposed
that of course he was just off the coast of India, and as he had reached the place by sailing west, he called it the
West In'dies and the people In'di-ans. The island itself he named San Sal-va-dor'. It is thought to
have been one of the Ba-ha'mas. He spent some little time among the islands, always hoping to come upon the
wealthy cities of the Great Khan. At length he re-
 turned to Spain, dreaming of future voyages that he would make.
COLUMBUS'S FIRST VIEW OF THE NEW WORLD.
When he reached Palos, the bells were rung and people gave up their business to celebrate the wonderful voyage and the
safe return. Columbus made three other journeys across the ocean, hoping every time to find the rich cities of the East.
His enemies claimed that he had mismanaged a colony that had been founded in the New World. Another governor was sent
out, and he threw the great Admiral into chains. Ferdinand and Isabella were indignant when they knew of this outrage;
but yet they could not help being disappointed that China had not been found. Neither they nor Columbus dreamed that he
had discovered a new continent; and even if they had known it, they would have much preferred finding a way to trade
with the distant East.
Why people were interested in India. — The belief of Columbus. — The scorn of the Spaniards. — The demands of
Columbus. — Delay. — Columbus at La Rabida. — Queen Isabella undertakes the enterprise. — The first voyage across the
Atlantic. — Landing in America. — The New World. — The return to Palos. — The disappointment of Columbus and his friends.