PETER THE HERMIT LEADS THE FIRST CRUSADE
 DURING many centuries, if a man asked, "What can I do that will be most pleasing to God?" not only the priests but nearly all
his friends would answer, "Make a pilgrimage to Je-ru'sa-lem, to the place where our Lord suffered and was
buried." To go from England or any part of Western Europe was a long journey and often dangerous, but it was not
expensive, for Christians felt it a good act to give the pilgrims food and lodging. Jerusalem was in the hands of the
Sar'a-cens. They were Mohammedans, but they had no objection to allowing pilgrims to visit the city, especially
as the wealthier among them spent considerable money during their stay. Good Harun-al-Rashid even erected a Christian
church and a building in which the pilgrims might lodge.
PETER THE HERMIT PREACHING.
About the time that William the Conqueror took possession of England, the Sel-juk'ian Turks captured Jerusalem.
Then it became a different matter to make a pilgrimage to the Holy City, for the pilgrims were robbed and tortured and
sometimes put to death. The Emperor in the East and the popes, one after another, were most indignant. Finally Pope
Urban II determined that the church should be aroused to capture the Holy Land from the
 Turks. He had a powerful helper, a Frenchman known as Peter the Hermit. Peter had been on a pilgrimage to the
Holy Land and on his return he traveled about Europe in coarse woolen shirt and hermit's mantle, telling people
everywhere of the cruelties of the Turks. At Cler-mont in France, Pope Urban went out into a wide-spreading plain
and made an eloquent address to the thousands of Franks who were gathered together. He told them that God had given
their nation glory in arms, and that He wished them to use their power, not in fighting with one another, but in winning
the city of Christ from the infidels. The multitude shouted, "God wills it! God wills it!" and it was not long before
 hundreds of thousands had fastened the red cross to their shoulders and had set out for Jerusalem. The Latin word for
cross is crux, and from this the expedition was known as a crusade. The pope had urged that none should go unless they
were able to bear arms, and that the rich should take soldiers with them; but people paid little attention to this
The first company started under Peter the Hermit and a knight known as Wal'ter the Pen'ni-less. Not all its
members, however, were real pilgrims. Some went for gain, some to see the world, and some were mere robbers and thieves.
Peter had no authority over them, and they did what they chose. While they were passing through Germany, the people were
kind to them and gladly brought them food; but when they came to other countries, they were not treated so generously.
Then they demanded food, often most insolently, and when it was refused, they stole it. They killed flocks and herds and
even their owners. Of course the people avenged their wrongs with the sword. The pilgrims fought or fled as best they
might. On arriving at Constantinople they were received kindly by the emperor and given food; but even there they stole
from houses and gardens and churches. They pushed on toward Jerusalem, and soon were attacked and slaughtered by the
But there were hundreds of thousands of others making ready to join the crusade who were not wild, turbulent folk like
the first company, but were far more earnest and serious. It is thought that at least 100,000 of these were knights.
They came by different ways, but all met at Constantinople. Then they marched on into Asia Minor. They were in need of
food and even of water. Thousands perished. The others were saved by some
 dogs that had followed them. These dogs deserted their masters, but finally came back to the camp. "See their muddy
paws! They have found water!" cried the thirsty people. They followed the dogs' tracks and came to water. A pigeon, too,
did them a good turn. One ruler had pretended to be friendly, but just after they had left his territory, they picked up
in their camp a dead carrier pigeon bearing a letter to the ruler of the next district, bidding him destroy "the
THE ARRIVAL OF THE CRUSADERS AT JERUSALEM.
So they went on; sometimes they captured a town; sometimes many of them died of famine or plague. At length they came in
sight of the Holy City, and then all their troubles were forgotten.
 They cried, "Jerusalem! Jerusalem!" They fell upon their knees, they kissed one another with joy, they cast off their
shoes, for had not the very soil become holy where the Lord had once walked? They threw themselves down upon it and
kissed the ground. With shouts of "God wills it! God wills it!" they attacked the walls. After a savage combat, the city
was captured. Then came a massacre of Saracens as brutal as any in history; for even the gallant knights had not yet
learned that it is better to teach an enemy than to kill him.
GODFREY OF BOUILLON.
The most valiant leader among the crusaders was God'frey of Bouil-lon', and he was chosen king of what was called
the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He was escorted to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, and there he would have been crowned, but
he said, "No, I cannot wear a crown of gold in the very city in which my Lord and Master wore a crown of thorns." He was
willing to be called Defender of the Holy Sepulcher, but he would not take the title of king. Godfrey and a few other
knights remained in Jerusalem, and
 the rest of the pilgrims went to their homes. They had spent four years in this crusade; hundreds of thousands of
Eu-ro-pe'ans, and perhaps as many Saracens had been slain; but the Holy City had been taken from the infidels,
and there was great rejoicing.
Kindness shown to early pilgrims. — Jerusalem is captured by the Seljukian Turks. — Pope Urban's determination to win the
Holy Land. — Peter the Hermit. — The Pope's address at Clermont. — The company under Peter the Hermit. — Thd second
company. — Saved by their dogs. — The arrival at Jerusalem. — The capture of the city. — Godfrey of Bouillon becomes "Defender
of the Holy Sepulcher."