WHEN SPARTA RULED
 SPARTA was now in command, and all the cities that were in her power watched anxiously to see what she would
do. For twenty-seven years, from the beginning of the war to its close, she had saying to them "Athens is a
tyrant, and Sparta is striving to set you free." Now they learned that Sparta's idea of freedom was for her to
do what she chose and force the other states to yield to her. The first thing that she did in each city was to
give it a Spartan governor, with ten men friendly to his plans as magistrates, and enough Spartan soldiers to
compel the citizens to be obedient. Ęgean cities were especially helpless. They had thought it hard to be
obliged to pay tribute to Athens, but now they had to
 pay not only the tribute, but also for the support of the governor and his soldiers.
MARKET-PLACE OF SPARTA.
Sparta suddenly forgot that Athens was "one of the two eyes of Greece,"
and treated her far more severely than any other city. Ten magistrates were not enough for the Athenians,—
they must have thirty, besides the Spartan governor and a large body Spartan soldiers. The Thirty Tyrants, as
they came to be called, chose three thousand men who they were sure would stand by them, and took away all arms
from the rest of the citizens. Then they had no fear of gods or men. They put to death all who had worked
against them during the war, all those against whom they had any grudge, and enough of the wealthier men to
supply the themselves liberally with money. The wretched Athenians said to one another even then, "Alcibiades
will not bear this; he will surely find some way to help us"; but it was not long before they heard that
Alcibiades had been assassinated. Then, indeed, they were hopeless, and hundreds fled from the city. The other
states were angry at the selfishness of Sparta, and were ready to give the fugitives a home. Even the Thebans,
who had been such bitter enemies of the Athenians, welcomed them. Just as soon as the little company of exiles
had grown large enough to make the venture, they crossed the border of Attica and made a stand against the
Thirty. Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates, wrote, "The Thirty, quite dejected and solitary, sat together
in council." They might well be "quite dejected," for this was the beginning of the overthrow of their
No nation is quite the same at the end of a long war as at the beginning. During the Peloponnesian War the
members of each party in Athens had been so sure that they were in the right that they hated the other
political parties most bitterly, and had
 come to feel that whatever act brought them their own way was the proper course to follow. The philosopher
Socrates had fought fearlessly for Athens,
and he loved his city: but he saw that it was more important to do right than for any party to get what it
wanted; and that to be honest and good was better than to pay sacrifices to the gods. Such teachings as these
did not please the people, who meant to have their own way no matter what happened. At length he was brought
into court and accused of not worshiping the gods and of giving false teaching to young men. He was condemned
to die, or, as he said, "to depart to some happy state of the blessed." Several of his followers were with him
during the last days of his life, and one of them, named Plato, wrote an account of the teacher's words
and acts. When the cup of poison was brought him, he drank it as quietly as if it had been wine. His
 disciples burst into tears. Plato says, "I did not weep for him, but for my own fortune in being deprived of
such a friend." At the last, when all supposed that the poison had taken effect, Socrates called to one of the
young men, "Crito, we owe a cock to Ęsculapius; pay it, therefore, and do not neglect it." Ęsculapius
was the god to whom a man who was grateful for his recovery from illness made a sacrifice; and Socrates was so
sure of a nobler, happier life to come that he felt as if giving up his life on earth was only passing from
sickness to health.
DEATH OF SOCRATES.
The following is a bit of the wisdom of Socrates. One Antipho wished to draw away the followers of the
philosopher. Therefore he came to Socrates one day when they were present, and said, "I thought that those who
studied philosophy were to become happier than other men; but you seem to have reaped from philosophy fruits of
an opposite kind; at least you live in a way in which no slave would continue to live with his master: you eat
food, and drink drink, of the worst kind; you wear a dress, not only bad, but the same both summer and winter,
and you continue shoeless and coatless. Money, which cheers men when they receive it, and enables those who
possess it to live more generously and pleasantly, you do not take; and if, therefore, as teachers in other
professions make their pupils imitate themselves, you also shall produce a similar effect on your
 followers, you must consider yourself but a teacher of wretchedness." Socrates replied quietly, "You, Antipho,
resemble one of who thinks that happiness consists in luxury and extravagance; but I think that to want nothing
is to resemble the gods, and that to want as little as possible is to make the nearest approach to the gods;
that the divine nature is perfection, and that to be nearest to the divine nature is to be nearest to
The enemies of Socrates did not forget to remind the judges that Alcibiades and Critias, the chief of
the Thirty Tyrants, had been among his pupils; but there was more than one of his devoted followers who became
an honor to Socrates and to his country. Plato lived half a century after the death of his beloved teacher, and
became even more famous as a philosopher. He wrote on the deepest subjects, but with so much humor and fancy
and sweetness, that people began to claim that he was a descendant of Apollo, the god of eloquence. Disciples
flocked around him as around Socrates, and he used to talk with them and lecture in his garden close by the
Academe. The story has come down to us that some strangers who met him at the Olympian games were so
pleased with him that they accepted gladly his invitation to visit him in Athens. When it was nearly time
 for their visit to come to an end, they said, "But will you introduce us to your famous namesake, the
philosopher Plato?" They were surprised indeed when their host replied simply, "I am the person whom you wish
SCHOOL OF ATHENS.
Another follower of Socrates was Xenophon, who was a philosopher, a military commander, and a historian. When
Socrates was in prison, Xenophon was just returning from a remarkable expedition that was planned by Cyrus of
Persia. After the Peloponnesian War was over, Cyrus sent envoys to Sparta to ask the Spartans that they behave
toward him as he had behaved toward them. By this he meant that he wanted to borrow some Grecian soldiers. His
brother, Artaxerxes II, was on the throne
 of Persia, but many thought it belonged to Cyrus, and he had raised and army of 100,000 men to help him get
possession of it. He knew how well the Greeks fought, and it is no wonder that he was eager to hire them. There
were thousands of men in Greece who knew little of any other life than that of the soldier, and they were ready
to fight for any one who would pay their wages. They would not, however, have agreed to go to the heart of
Asia; so they were tricked into making the march by being told that Cyrus wanted them to help subdue some
rebels in Pisidia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor. They crossed the Ęgean Sea, landed near Samos,
and set out cheerfully toward Pisidia. But Pisidia seemed to be a long way off, and at length, they began to
suspect some trickery. By and by Cyrus and his troops met them, and he finally admitted that they were on their
way to Babylonia and were to fight, not a few rebels,
 but the king of the mighty Persian empire. They were already well into Persia, and it was almost as dangerous
to try to retreat as to go forward. Cyrus promised them generous wages as they agreed to go on.
(DOTTED LINE SHOWS ROUTE OF TEN THOUSAND; UNBROKEN LINE, ALEXANDER'S
One day, just before noon, a man came galloping up to the army at full speed, crying out, first in Persian and
then in Greek, "The king is coming, the king is coming, with a vast army; all prepared for battle!" Early in
the afternoon a low white cloud was seen lying across the plain. That was the dust made by the king's army. The
dust grew darker and darker; then the flash of a spear or of a suit of brazen armor could be seen. Cavalry,
with armor of snowy white, appeared; troops of Egyptians with long wooden shields; bowmen; chariots with scythes
projecting from the axle-tree; nations upon nations, each one in a solid mass by itself. The lines of Cyrus
were forming, and he himself was watching them, when he heard a low murmur pass through the ranks from right to
left, then from left to right. "What is that?" he asked. Xenophon had just ridden up to ask if he had any
commands to give, and he replied that it was the watchword, "Jupiter the Preserver, and Victory." "I accept it
as a good omen," said Cyrus, "and may it be so."
The omen proved false. It is true that the valiant Greeks won the battle, but Cyrus was slain. "Give up your
arms," the king commanded. "Victors do not give up their arms," replied the Greeks. The king did not care to
fight again. He wanted rather to get rid of those troublesome foreigners, and he thought it would be a good
plan to let them wander off into the country and starve. Their generals were slain through a trick;
 and the Greeks were left in an enemy's country, at least one thousand miles from home. They had no guides, no
commander, and little knowledge of the land save that there were many rivers and mountains. They were in
despair. Night came and they lay on the ground, longing for their families and their own country. Xenophon had
gone to Persia with the army, not as a soldier, and with no idea of fighting the king, but only to win
advancement with Cyrus. As he lay on the ground, he made up his mind that since no one else took the lead, it
was left for him to do something. He hesitated because there were so many older men than he; then he said to
himself, "Surely, I shall never be any older if I give myself up to the enemy to-day." This was soon after
mid-night. In the darkness he called together the captains and they planned as best they could. "Do you tell
the army," they said; and in the first gray of the morning Xenophon put on his best armor and his finest
accoutrements and stood before the ten thousand men. He told them how brave their forefathers had been, and
that they could surely make their way home. They must burn their baggage, saving only what was needed of meat
and drink and arms. "If we are victorious, we ought to look upon the enemy as our baggage-carriers," he said.
The soldiers forgot their discouragement. They burned all the baggage they could spare, chose new generals,—
of course Xenophon was one,—ate their breakfast with good cheer, and started on one of the most remarkable of
retreats. They plodded over burning plains, waded through swiftly flowing rivers, climbed rugged hills, pushed
on through mountain-passes where snow-drifts were a fathom deep and the keenest of winter winds whistled around
them. Sometimes they had food and sometimes no food. Sometimes they were allowed to pass through a district
 in peace, sometimes they were attacked on all sides. If they could only come to the sea! they thought, for then
the way to friends and home would be easy. At length Xenophon heard one day a great shout from the men in
advance. It grew louder and louder. It did not sound like a battle-cry, and yet there might be a foe in front
of them,—no one could tell. He sprang upon his horse and galloped up the hill. Behold, on the horizon, far
away to the north, lay a line of shining water, the Euxine Sea. "The Sea, the Sea!" shouted the soldiers. Those
sturdy warriors burst into tears, they threw their arms around one another's necks, they embraced their
generals and captains. The native who had led them up the hill stood by. They gave him a horse, a silver cup, a
Persian robe, and ten gold coins. They raised a mound, as had been done at Marathon, and on it they laid
oxhides and staves, and shields taken from the enemy. In three days the Ten Thousand were at the Greek city of
Trebizond. The citizens welcomed them and gave them oxen and wine and barley meal, and celebrated games
in honor of the kindness of the gods. Xenophon himself wrote the account of this retreat of the Ten Thousand
who fought their way for a thousand miles through the enemy's country to the sea.
Xenophon, too, as well as Plato, loved Socrates, and wrote what he could remember of his master's teachings.
After giving him the warmest praise, he closed with the words, "If any on disapproves of my opinion, let him
compare the conduct of others with that of Socrates, and determine accordingly."
CNIDUS AND ITS TWO HARBORS
(MANY ANCIENT TRIREMES ANCHORED IN THESE HARBORS)
 The march of the Ten Thousand showed the Greeks that the enormous Persian empire was really a big unwieldy
realm, without life or energy; and Sparta was somewhat pleased when the Greek coast cities begged for help
against Tissaphernes, who was making ready to punish every city that had been friendly to Cyrus. After a little
fighting between the Spartans and Tissaphernes, the Spartan king Agesilaus formed the plan of sweeping
through Persia and conquering the overgrown dominion. He was so successful that it really began to seem as if
he might be able to carry out his plan; but the crafty Persians could scheme if they could not fight. They knew
that the other Greeks hated Sparta for her tyranny and selfishness, and now they offered ships and men, and
contrived to induce Corinth, Athens, Thebes, and Argos to unite against her. This was the beginning of the
Corinthian War, which lasted for eight years. Much of the fighting was done in Corinth, but at last there was a
great naval battle off Cnidus, in Asia Minor. Then there came a sorry day for Sparta, for the whole
Spartan fleet was destroyed. A little later there was more joy in Athens than there had been for many a day,
for by the aid of Persian money the first stones were put in place for the rebuilding of the Long Walls and the
fortifications of the Piręus.
The Athenians were happy, but their allies were jealous. "Why
 should we fight if Athens is to have the reward?" they questioned. Sparta, too, began to be uncomfortable. "Why
should we try to protect the Greek colonies if all that our work amounts to is to help Athens?" they grumbled.
There was nothing to do but to make peace, and with their usual selfishness they made a treaty, called the
Peace of Antalcidas from the name of the ambassador, which gave the Greek cities of Asia to the
Persians. Almost worse than this was a sentence in the treaty which declared that the Persian king and the
Spartans would fight any state that refused to obey its terms. This really meant that Sparta was ready to unite
with Persia against any part of her own country.
Sparta not only made a shameful treaty, but she behaved even more shamefully in carrying it out. She still
claimed that she was giving freedom to the Greeks, and she not only set to work to force every city that was
ruling another to give up that control, but she broke up any friendly union of towns that she fancied might
some day be of injury to her. She thought that the people of Mantinea in Arcadia did not approve of her course,
and she tore down their walls and forced the citizens to separate and settle five little villages. The
government of Greece was really a sort of tyranny, and Sparta was the tyrant. A Spartan general was marching
through the friendly city of Thebes when a Theban said to him privately, "The other party hates the Spartans,
but ours is friendly to you. I will conduct you into the citadel, Thebes will then be in your power, and you
will not forget us." It was a hot summer noon, and there were few people in the streets to oppose, and soon the
Spartan general was in control of Thebes. When news of this reached the Spartans, the were indignant, not
because he had done so wicked a deed, but because he had done it without orders from the state. Then said
 King Agesilaus, "The point is whether he has done harm or good to Sparta. If harm, he ought to be punished; but
if good, it is an old rule that a man may do such a thing of his own accord." They concluded that it was good
for Sparta, and therefore they kept the citadel.
Many Thebans of the opposite party fled from the city in fear for their lives. Among them was one
Pelopidas. He used to say to the other exiles, "It is dishonorable to be contented with saving our own
lives; we ought to be striving to free our city." At length he aroused them, and a plan was made to deliver
Thebes. Pelopidas and some others of the younger men dressed as peasants and stole into the city by different
ways. It was so cold and snowy that most people were in their houses, but some friends of the exiles were on
the watch to lead them to the place of meeting. When evening had come, they put on the dresses of women over
their armor, with heavy wreaths of pine and poplar falling over their foreheads to hide their bearded faces. So
disguised, they went to the place where the leaders of the party that had betrayed their city were banqueting,
and slew the chief ones among them. Pelopidas threw open the jails to free those who were true to Thebes. Now
the lights began to shine out from the windows of the houses; the streets were full of people; there was
confusion and shouting everywhere, for no one knew just what had happened. When morning had come, the loyal
Thebans called the people together. Then Pelopidas and the other exiles, his friend Epaminondas, and the
priests of the temples stood before the assembly. "Arouse yourselves," cried the priests, "for the gods and
your country!" The whole assembly sprang to their feet like one man, and shouted with joy. They marched
straight to the citadel. The Spartans who held it were of different
 stamp from those of Thermopylę, and they surrendered a once. One place after another followed the example of
Thebes. The Spartans punished the governors who surrendered, but surrenders did not cease.
PLAN OF THE BATTLE OF LEUCTRA.
(THE SPARTAN KING WAS ON THE RIGHT OF THE SPARTAN LINES)
Then Athens began to dream of a return of her own greatness. She founded a new association of states that was
far better than the Delian League, for the states were to hold equal rank and the money collected was to be
used for the benefit of all. This was so fair an association that it might have endured but for the same old
trouble, one state's jealousy of another. Now it was the Athenians that were becoming so jealous of Thebes that
they decided to make peace with Sparta.
Sparta still declared that she was freeing the Botian cities, but one day the Spartan army were surprised to
see a Theban army march out to meet them. The Spartans arranged their men in the same old way that they had
followed for generations, and advanced toward the enemy in a long line, twelve men deep. Epaminondas, who led
the Thebans, reasoned, "The best warriors will be around the king, and if we can defeat them, the rest will be
an easy matter." Therefore he did not make his line of the same depth, but arranged the ranks opposite the king
fifty men deep. No line twelve deep could be expected to withstand the attack of a line fifty deep, and
although Sparta had more men, she met the worst defeat in all her history, for the army was beaten in a fair
fight by a much smaller force. This was the battle of Leuctra.
 When the news was brought to Sparta that their men had been beaten by a smaller number, the ephors knew well
that the Greeks would never fear them again; they had lost the leadership of bore defeat their country. If the
Spartans had been Athenians, they would have wept and moaned, but being Spartans, they bore their loss in the
old Spartan fashion. "Let the games go on," bade the ephors, for they were in the midst of a festival. All the
usual ceremonies were observed, and the ephors themselves stayed until the last contest and the last dance were
ended. It was the Spartan custom to shame in every way possible any soldier who had fled from a battle. He was
obliged to shave one half his beard and leave the other half uncut. He must wear shabby clothes covered with
patches of different colors. He was never allowed to hold office, and any Spartan girl who married such a man
was looked upon as having disgraced herself. So many had fled from the battle of Leuctra that the Spartans did
not dare to treat them in this fashion; but the relatives of those who had died went about the streets with an
air of pride, and entered the temples to give thanks for the courage of their friends. The relatives of those
who had escaped from the battle wore sorrowful faces, and walked through the city with their heads bowed, or
even shut themselves up altogether, as was the Spartan custom in time of deepest mourning. So it was that
Sparta bore the defeat that destroyed her dream of becoming the ruler of Greece.
 Sparta enslaved the cities that she had claimed to be setting free; but the "Thirty" in Athens were overthrown.
Socrates made enemies and was condemned to die. Plato and Xenophon were his pupils.
Cyrus hired Greek soldiers on a false pretense and led them into Asia. They overcame Artaxerxes II in battle;
but he slew the generals and left them to wander away and starve. Xenophon urged them to make a brave retreat.
They did so, and at length they came to the sea. Then their way to Greece was easy.
This "March of the Ten Thousand" showed the weakness of Persia, and Sparta planned the conquest of the
country. The Persians induced Corinth, Athens, Thebes, and Argos to unite against Sparta. This was the
beginning of the Corinthian War. The Spartan fleet was destroyed at the battle of Cnidus. Persian money helped
to rebuild the Athenian walls. The Peace of Antalcidas was made, by which Sparta agreed to unite with Persia to
punish any state that broke the treaty.
Sparta became tyrant of Greece. She seized the citadel of Thebes. Many of the Thebans fled. At length Pelopidas
and others returned and drove out the Spartans. Other places also yielded.
Athens formed an association of states and finally made peace with Sparta.
The Thebans under Epaminondas won at Leuctra, and the Spartans were no longer the leaders of Greece.
SUGGESTIONS FOR WRITTEN WORK
One of Plato's guests tells the story of his visit to Athens.
A soldier of Xenophon describes the last day of the march.
How Pelopidas took Thebes.